The purpose of this application is to investigate a number of health-related variables in middle-aged and older Mexican Americans. Data will be employed from the southwestern sample of the recently completed Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (H-HANES). This is the largest study of the health of Hispanics. Moreover, it oversampled persons 45 to 74 enabling the performance of relatively detailed multivariate analyses for a number of subgroups (by age, gender, etc). Our findings will be generalizable to the Mexican Origin population of the five Southwestern states. Variables of primary interest include self-ratings of health, activity limitation due to health problems or disability, presence of hypertension, physical activity, depression, preventive health care utilization, smoking, and alcohol consumption. We propose to approach the analysis of the data within a conceptual model in which acculturation into the larger society is the key independent variable influencing health and mental health. Acculturation has been receiving increased attention in the literature on Hispanics as a potential determinant of health because of the stress it may involve or because it alters certain health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, utilization of services). However, we argue that the association between level of acculturation and health is quite complex. We hypothesize that a number of factors """"""""buffer"""""""", or modify the influence of acculturation. These include age, gender, marital status, employment status, socioeconomic status and health insurance coverage. We plan to operationalize and examine this model utilizing a variety of multivariate statistical techniques. First, we plan methodological analyses with the acculturation scale and the two depression scales to examine their applicability to the various age groups in the sample. Our substantive analyses will utilize variations of Ordinary Least Squares multiple regression analysis when the dependent variable is continuous (e.g. total depressive symptoms, number of drinks consumed). We plan to utilize logistic regression analysis when the dependent variable is dichotomous (e.g., presence of hypertension, high depressive symptomatology). Modifier effects of variables will be assessed through subgroup analyses (e.g. by conducting separate regression analyses for persons age 65 to 74 and for younger persons) and/or by introducing multiplicative terms into the equations.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Research Project (R01)
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Human Development and Aging Subcommittee 1 (HUD)
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University of Texas Medical Br Galveston
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Markides, K S; Lee, D J; Ray, L A et al. (1993) Physicians' ratings of health in middle and old age: a cautionary note. J Gerontol 48:S24-7
Markides, K S; Lee, D J; Ray, L A (1993) Acculturation and hypertension in Mexican Americans. Ethn Dis 3:70-4
Macheledt, J E; Vernon, S W (1992) Diabetes and disability among Mexican Americans: the effect of different measures of diabetes on its association with disability. J Clin Epidemiol 45:519-28
Lee, D J; Carlson, D L; Lee, H M et al. (1991) Hearing loss and hearing aid use in Hispanic adults: results from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Public Health 81:1471-4
Lee, D J; Markides, K S (1991) Health behaviors, risk factors, and health indicators associated with cigarette use in Mexican Americans: results from the Hispanic HANES. Am J Public Health 81:859-64
Markides, K S; Lee, D J (1991) Predictors of health status in middle-aged and older Mexican Americans. J Gerontol 46:S243-9
Coreil, J; Ray, L A; Markides, K S (1991) Predictors of smoking among Mexican-Americans: findings from the Hispanic HANES. Prev Med 20:508-17
Zhang, J; Markides, K S; Lee, D J (1991) Health status of diabetic Mexican Americans: results from the Hispanic HANES. Ethn Dis 1:273-9