The broad objectives are to further illucidate the life cycle of Lambornella clarki, (Tetrahymenidae: Ciliphora) and to assess its potential as a manipulated biological control agent of the western treehole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis, and related mosquitoes. We also plan to establish L. clarki in known L. clarki-negative treeholes and to determine factors influencing infection rates and persistence in mosquito breeding sites. Specific laboratory objectives include determining environmental and physiological cues that stimulate encystation and excystation, determining how long cysts remain viable, and studying L. clarki and its pathogenesis for Ae. sierrensis and other mosquito species. The long-term objectives include development of an in vitro culture system for L. clarki, and ultimately development of techniques in laboratory mass-production, storage, and field inoculation of treeholes. Dispersal of the parasite by infected adults will be quantified under field conditions. Laboratory colonies will be used to study interrelationships between L. clarki and other pathogens. Laboratory mass production and field application of this mosquito pathogen could result in the successful use of a biological control agent with excellent potential for persistence in aquatic habitats of container-breeding mosquitoes. Container-type mosquito habitas are breeding sites for some of the most effective mosquito vectors of important human pathogens (e.g. Ae. aegypti and Yellow Fever and Dengue Fever, Ae. polynesiensis and Filariasis, Ae. albopictus and Dengue, and Ae. triseriatus and LaCrosse Virus). In California, Ae. sierrensis is a major biting pest, and it is a known vector of dog heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) and the deer body worm (Setaria yehi), both of which occasionally infect humans.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Tropical Medicine and Parasitology Study Section (TMP)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of California Berkeley
Schools of Earth Sciences/Natur
United States
Zip Code
Yee, W L; Anderson, J R (1995) Tethered flight capabilities and survival of Lambornella clarki-infected, blood-fed, and gravid Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 32:153-60
Yee, W L; Anderson, J R (1995) Free flight of Lambornella clarki-infected, blood-fed, and gravid Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 32:407-12
Mercer, D R; Anderson, J R (1994) Tannins in treehole habitats and their effects on Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae) production and parasitism by Lambornella clarki (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae). J Med Entomol 31:159-67
Washburn, J O; Hartmann, E U (1992) Could Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) become established in California tree holes? J Med Entomol 29:995-1005
Preparata, R M; Beam, C A; Himes, M et al. (1992) Crypthecodinium and Tetrahymena: an exercise in comparative evolution. J Mol Evol 34:209-18
Washburn, J O; Mercer, D R; Anderson, J R (1991) Regulatory role of parasites: impact on host population shifts with resource availability. Science 253:185-8
Washburn, J O; Anderson, J R; Mercer, D R (1989) Emergence characteristics of Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from California treeholes with particular reference to parasite loads. J Med Entomol 26:173-82
Egerter, D E; Anderson, J R (1989) Blood-feeding drive inhibition of Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae) induced by the parasite Lambornella clarki (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae). J Med Entomol 26:46-54
Saunders, G A; Washburn, J O; Egerter, D E et al. (1988) Pathogenicity of fungi isolated from field-collected larvae of the Western treehole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Invertebr Pathol 52:360-3
Washburn, J O; Gross, M E; Mercer, D R et al. (1988) Predator-induced trophic shift of a free-living ciliate: parasitism of mosquito larvae by their prey. Science 240:1193-5

Showing the most recent 10 out of 14 publications