Insects are able to respond to microbial infections by defensive actions of the hemocytes (blood cells) and by synthesis of antibacterial proteins by the fat body. The mechanisms by which nonself is recognized by insect cells are unknown. A bacteria-induced protein of M(r) = 48,000 isolated from the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, has been shown by analysis of its cDNA sequence to be a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. The long-term objective of this proposal is to understand the role of proteins related to immunoglobulins in the insect immune system.
Specific aims are: 1) Isolation and sequencing of cDNA and genomic clones for members of the immunoglobulin-related hemolymph protein (IRHP) family in Manduca; 2) Regulation of IRHP gene expression; 3) Identification of IRHP functions; 4) Studies of immunoglobulin-related proteins expressed in hemocytes; 5) Studies on IRHP in Drosophila. The study of insect proteins related to immunoglobulins may yield information relevant to the understanding of insects as vectors of human and animal diseases and also contribute to knowledge on the evolution of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
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Tropical Medicine and Parasitology Study Section (TMP)
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Kansas State University
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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Rayaprolu, Subrahmanyam; Wang, Yang; Kanost, Michael R et al. (2010) Functional analysis of four processing products from multiple precursors encoded by a lebocin-related gene from Manduca sexta. Dev Comp Immunol 34:638-47
Suwanchaichinda, Chansak; Kanost, Michael R (2009) The serpin gene family in Anopheles gambiae. Gene 442:47-54
Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo; Yu, Xiao-Qiang (2004) Innate immune responses of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta. Immunol Rev 198:97-105
Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Kanost, Michael R (2002) Binding of hemolin to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. An immunoglobulin superfamily member from insects as a pattern-recognition receptor. Eur J Biochem 269:1827-34
Yu, X-Q; Zhu, Y-F; Ma, C et al. (2002) Pattern recognition proteins in Manduca sexta plasma. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 32:1287-93
Wiegand, C; Levin, D; Gillespie, J et al. (2000) Monoclonal antibody MS13 identifies a plasmatocyte membrane protein and inhibits encapsulation and spreading reactions of Manduca sexta hemocytes. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 45:95-108
Wang, Y; Jiang, H; Kanost, M R (1999) Biological activity of Manduca sexta paralytic and plasmatocyte spreading peptide and primary structure of its hemolymph precursor. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 29:1075-86
Yu, X Q; Kanost, M R (1999) Developmental expression of Manduca sexta hemolin. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 42:198-212
Gillespie, J P; Kanost, M R; Trenczek, T (1997) Biological mediators of insect immunity. Annu Rev Entomol 42:611-43
Jiang, H; Wang, Y; Ma, C et al. (1997) Subunit composition of pro-phenol oxidase from Manduca sexta: molecular cloning of subunit ProPO-P1. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 27:835-50

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