: The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the risk of urban (epidemic) yellow fever (YF) reappearing in the Americas. Because of increasing urbanization, the abundance of the urban mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti) in most Neotropical cities, decreasing vaccine coverage, rapid transportation, and the unprecedented level of human activity in jungle areas where YF virus is endemic, there is now major concern that the epidemic or urban form of the disease will reappear in the Americas. We have recently developed a hamster model of YF, which mimics the clinical and pathological manifestations observed in severe forms of the disease in humans and monkeys. Using the hamster model, an attempt will be made to validate several of the hypotheses of why urban YF is currently absent from the Americas. There are four specific aims, which will test the hypotheses and will examine various aspects of the epidemiology of YF in the New World. These involve comparative studies of the virulence for hamsters and the infectivity for Ae.aegypti of the four major genotypes of YF virus; an investigation of the role of pre-existing heterologous flavivirus antibodies in modifying the severity of YF; and an evaluation of the importance of vertical (transovarial) virus transmission in two New World sylvan vectors (Haemagogus janthinomys and Sabethes chioropterus) in maintenance of the enzootic forest cycle. The project involves the disciplines of virology, tropical medicine, pathology, medical entomology and public health. Most of the work will be done in laboratories at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Center for Tropical Diseases; but a small portion will be done at the Evandro Chagas Institute in Belem, Brazil.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01AI050175-03
Application #
6632489
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-TMP (01))
Program Officer
Repik, Patricia M
Project Start
2001-07-15
Project End
2006-05-31
Budget Start
2003-06-01
Budget End
2004-05-31
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2003
Total Cost
$360,250
Indirect Cost
Name
University of Texas Medical Br Galveston
Department
Pathology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
800771149
City
Galveston
State
TX
Country
United States
Zip Code
77555
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Mutebi, John-Paul; Gianella, Alberto; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia et al. (2004) Yellow fever virus infectivity for Bolivian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Emerg Infect Dis 10:1657-60
Sbrana, Elena; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Guzman, Hilda et al. (2004) Efficacy of post-exposure treatment of yellow fever with ribavirin in a hamster model of the disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:306-12
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