: The proposed research involves a comprehensive investigation of the relationship of structure to function in nikD, a newly characterized flavoenzyme that catalyzes a key step in the biosynthesis of nikkomycins. Nikkomycins are peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics that inhibit chitin synthase and have proven effective as potent antifungal agents against several important human pathogens and easily degraded insecticides in agriculture. The dramatic increase of life-threatening fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, coupled with the emergence of drug resistance and toxicity of many current antifungal drugs, has created a strong impetus for the development of new and safer antifungal agents. NikD has been identified as a new member of the monomeric sarcosine oxidase family, a group of redox enzymes that exhibit a requirement for covalent incorporation of flavin. The overall goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the biosynthesis of an important group of antibiotics, the mechanism and scope of reactions catalyzed by flavoenzymes and the evolution of substrate specificity differences within the expanding monomeric sarcosine oxidase family. Structural studies with nikD will build on our recent success in determining the crystal structure of the isolated enzyme at 1.75 Angstroms resolution. We will identify the endogenous ligand revealed by this structure, determine the structure of free nikD and enzyme complexes likely to provide models for intermediates formed during oxidation of the physiological substrate.
We aim to define, kinetically characterize and elucidate the mechanism of the reactions(s) catalyzed by nikD with its proposed physiological substrate, delta-1- or delta-2-piperideine-2-carboxylate (P2C). This compound can exist in two tautomeric forms. The imine (delta-1-P2C) is the predominant tautomer at neutral pH. The more easily oxidized enamine (delta-2-P2C) is the major species at alkaline pH. Our preliminary studies suggest that nikD may be a novel trifunctional enzyme that catalyzes tautomerization of the imine form of its physiological substrate, followed by two successive 2-electron oxidation steps. These reactions yield picolinate as the final product, as suggested by earlier microbiological studies. Definitive evidence for the postulated reactions will be sought in studies that involve intermediate trapping, rapid reaction kinetics, deuterium-labeled substrate, substrate analogs that act as mechanistic probes, steady-state kinetics, deuterium-labeled substrate, substrate analogs that act as mechanistic probes, steady-state kinetics, mutagenesis and modified flavin derivatives.
|Bruckner, Robert C; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman (2009) Spectral and kinetic characterization of intermediates in the aromatization reaction catalyzed by NikD, an unusual amino acid oxidase. Biochemistry 48:4455-65|
|Kommoju, Phaneeswara-Rao; Bruckner, Robert C; Ferreira, Patricia et al. (2009) Factors that affect oxygen activation and coupling of the two redox cycles in the aromatization reaction catalyzed by NikD, an unusual amino acid oxidase. Biochemistry 48:9542-55|
|Kommoju, Phaneeswara-Rao; Bruckner, Robert C; Ferreira, Patricia et al. (2009) Probing the role of active site residues in NikD, an unusual amino acid oxidase that catalyzes an aromatization reaction important in nikkomycin biosynthesis. Biochemistry 48:6951-62|
|Carrell, Christopher J; Bruckner, Robert C; Venci, David et al. (2007) NikD, an unusual amino acid oxidase essential for nikkomycin biosynthesis: structures of closed and open forms at 1.15 and 1.90 A resolution. Structure 15:928-41|
|Bruckner, Robert C; Zhao, Gouhua; Ferreira, Patricia et al. (2007) A mobile tryptophan is the intrinsic charge transfer donor in a flavoenzyme essential for nikkomycin antibiotic biosynthesis. Biochemistry 46:819-27|