Although Interferon-1 (IFN-?) is a cytokine known for its antiviral effects, it may be also be important for normal functioning of the adaptive and innate immune system at low, physiologic concentrations, while it is immunosuppressive at high concentrations. In this respect, elevated levels of IFN-?? are not correlated with control of HIV-1 infection and are likely a sign of immune activation that contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Our preliminary data show that HIV-1-induced IFN-?? production inhibits early stages of human T cell development by impairing the IL-7/IL7R pathway. In addition we found that in normal thymus tissue, mature thymocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) constitutively express IFN-?? and its secondary response protein MxA at low levels. In contrast, lymphocytes and pDC in peripheral lymphoid organs (from the same donor) do not constitutively express IFN-??. These results support the notion that in the thymus, low levels of IFN-?? are important for normal functioning of T cell development. However, high levels of IFN-?? and prolonged HIV-1-induced IFN-?? are likely to disturb normal T cell development and thereby peripheral T cell reconstitution. Thus, although IFN-?? can suppress HIV-1 replication in vitro, and IFN-?? therapy has shown mixed results in vivo, it is likely that its immunosuppressive effects outweigh its antiviral activity thereby contributing to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Based on our preliminary data our central hypothesis is that high levels of IFN-?? which accompany immune, activation during HIV-1 infection, impair T cell (re)generation and that pDC play an essential role in this process. We will use our established methods as well as novel approaches and unique reagents to test our hypothesis. Experiments will be performed with HIV-induced IFN-?? in humanized mouse models and in vitro T cell development assays as proposed in the following specific aims: 1. To investigate the mechanisms by which HIV-1 induced IFN-?? inhibits T-cell development and reconstitution. 2. To characterize the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in the thymus. 3. To investigate the mechanisms by which IFN-?? induced MxA or other secondary response proteins suppress replication of CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1. The present proposal represents a unique collaborative approach to elucidate the role of IFN-?? and pDC in T cell development and reconstitution in HIV-1 infection. Information gained from the proposed experiments will have implications for the treatment of HIV-1 infected patients with immunomodulatory therapies.
Although Interferon-?? (IFN-??) is a cytokine known for its antiviral effects, it may also be important for normal functioning of the adaptive and innate immune system at low, physiologic, concentrations while it is immunosuppressive at high concentrations. In this respect, elevated levels of IFN-?? are not correlated with control of HIV-1 infection and are likely a sign of immune activation that contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis. The present proposal represents a unique collaborative approach to elucidate the role of IFN-?? and pDC in T cell development and reconstitution in HIV-1 infection. Insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the IFN-?? induced block of T cell development will enhance the development of immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions to counteract impaired T cell development and regeneration.
|Douaisi, Marc; Resop, Rachel S; Nagasawa, Maho et al. (2017) CD31, a Valuable Marker to Identify Early and Late Stages of T Cell Differentiation in the Human Thymus. J Immunol 198:2310-2319|
|Resop, Rachel S; Douaisi, Marc; Craft, Joshua et al. (2016) Sphingosine-1-phosphate/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 signaling is required for migration of naive human T cells from the thymus to the periphery. J Allergy Clin Immunol 138:551-557.e8|
|Epeldegui, Marta; Blom, Bianca; Uittenbogaart, Christel H (2015) BST2/Tetherin is constitutively expressed on human thymocytes with the phenotype and function of Treg cells. Eur J Immunol 45:728-37|
|Resop, Rachel S; Uittenbogaart, Christel H (2015) Human T-Cell Development and Thymic Egress: An Infectious Disease Perspective. For Immunopathol Dis Therap 6:33-49|
|Karrich, Julien J; Jachimowski, Loes C M; Uittenbogaart, Christel H et al. (2014) The plasmacytoid dendritic cell as the Swiss army knife of the immune system: molecular regulation of its multifaceted functions. J Immunol 193:5772-8|
|Karrich, Julien J; Jachimowski, Loes C M; Libouban, Marion et al. (2013) MicroRNA-146a regulates survival and maturation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Blood 122:3001-9|
|Karrich, Julien J; Jachimowski, Loes C M; Nagasawa, Maho et al. (2013) IL-21-stimulated human plasmacytoid dendritic cells secrete granzyme B, which impairs their capacity to induce T-cell proliferation. Blood 121:3103-11|
|Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I et al. (2012) The transcription factor encyclopedia. Genome Biol 13:R24|
|Colantonio, Arnaud D; Epeldegui, Marta; Jesiak, Maria et al. (2011) IFN-ýý is constitutively expressed in the human thymus, but not in peripheral lymphoid organs. PLoS One 6:e24252|
|Schotte, Remko; Schmidlin, Heike; Nagasawa, Maho et al. (2010) Isolation and in vitro generation of gene-manipulated human plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells. Methods Mol Biol 595:67-85|