Paramyxoviruses are the leading causative agents of acute viral respiratory tract infections. Among the paramyxoviruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) account for more than 70% of acute viral respiratory diseases. Despite the enormous economic losses and emotional burdens these viruses cause, vaccines and anti- viral drugs are currently not available. The 5' end of the messenger RNA (mRNA) of paramyxoviruses contains a unique methylated cap structure that is essential for viral gene expression and, subsequently, viral replication. Available evidence suggests that formation and methylation of the paramyxovirus mRNA cap structure differs from that of their hosts. This difference could potentially be used as a target for vaccine development and anti-viral therapies. This project will be focused on hMPV, a newly discovered human pathogen, first identified in 2001. The objective of this project is to understand the mechanism of mRNA capping and methylation in hMPV and to explore methyltransferase as a potential target for the development of novel vaccines against hMPV.
Our specific aims are: (1) to define the mechanism of mRNA capping in hMPV; (2) to define the mechanism of mRNA cap methyltransferase in hMPV; (3) to generate methyltransferase -defective hMPV and to determine whether methyltransferase -defective viruses are attenuated and genetically stable in cell culture; and (4) to determine whether methyltransferase -defective hMPV is attenuated and genetically stable in mice and if it can be used as a live vaccine candidate. The proposed studies will not only significantly advance our understanding of viral mRNA capping and methylation, an essential step in paramyxovirus gene expression, but will also fill in a major gap in our understanding of the role of methyltransferase in hMPV pathogenesis, specifically, our understanding of whether methyltransferase-defective hMPV can be used as a live vaccine candidates. In the long-term, our research will facilitate the rational design of new vaccines and anti-viral drugs by targeting viral mRNA cap formation.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the leading causative agents of acute viral respiratory tract infections. Currently, there is no vaccine or anti-viral drug. The objective of this project is to understand the mechanism of mRNA capping and methylation in hMPV, to explore the role of mRNA cap methylation in viral pathogenesis, and to develop methyltransferase-defective viruses as a live vaccine candidates for hMPV.
|Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei et al. (2016) A Reverse Genetics Approach for the Design of Methyltransferase-Defective Live Attenuated Avian Metapneumovirus Vaccines. Methods Mol Biol 1404:103-21|
|Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Mijia et al. (2016) Phosphorylation of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Upregulates Viral Replication and Pathogenesis. J Virol 90:7323-7338|
|Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei et al. (2015) Zinc binding activity of human metapneumovirus M2-1 protein is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. J Virol 89:6391-405|
|Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong (2014) Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse. Pathogens 3:633-55|
|Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Hui et al. (2014) Roles of the putative integrin-binding motif of the human metapneumovirus fusion (f) protein in cell-cell fusion, viral infectivity, and pathogenesis. J Virol 88:4338-52|
|Ma, Yuanmei; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong et al. (2014) mRNA cap methylation influences pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus in vivo. J Virol 88:2913-26|
|Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Rauf, Abdul et al. (2014) Methyltransferase-defective avian metapneumovirus vaccines provide complete protection against challenge with the homologous Colorado strain and the heterologous Minnesota strain. J Virol 88:12348-63|
|Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong et al. (2014) Rational design of human metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccine candidates by inhibiting viral mRNA cap methyltransferase. J Virol 88:11411-29|
|Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie et al. (2012) Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion. J Virol 86:11800-14|
|Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan et al. (2012) Development and optimization of a direct plaque assay for human and avian metapneumoviruses. J Virol Methods 185:61-8|