This project will examine the risk of future coronavirus (CoV) emergence from wildlife using in-depth field investigations across the human-wildlife interface in China, molecular characterization of novel CoVs and host receptor binding domain genes, mathematical models of transmission and evolution, and in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies of host range. Zoonotic CoVs are a significant threat to global health, as demonstrated with the emergence of pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in China in 2002, and the recent and ongoing emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). Bats appear to be the natural reservoir of these viruses, and hundreds of novel bat-CoVs have been discovered in the last two decades. Bats, and other wildlife species, are hunted, traded, butchered and consumed across Asia, creating a large scale human-wildlife interface, and high risk of future emergence of novel CoVs. This project aims to understand what factors increase the risk of the next CoV emerging in people by studying CoV diversity in a critical zoonotic reservoir (bats), at sites of high risk for emergence (wildlife markets) in an emerging disease hotspot (China). The three specific aims of this project are to: 1. Assess CoV spillover potential at high risk human-wildlife interfaces in China. This will include quantifying he nature and frequency of contact people have with bats and other wildlife; serological and molecular screening of people working in wet markets and highly exposed to wildlife; screening wild-caught and market sampled bats from 30+ species for CoVs using molecular assays; and genomic characterization and isolation of novel CoVs. 2. Develop predictive models of bat CoV emergence risk and host range. A combined modeling approach will include phylogenetic analyses of host receptors and novel CoV genes (including functional receptor binding domains); a fused ecological and evolutionary model to predict host-range and viral sharing; and mathematical matrix models to examine evolutionary and transmission dynamics. 3. Test predictions of CoV inter-species transmission. Predictive models of host range (i.e. emergence potential) will be tested experimentally using reverse genetics, pseudovirus and receptor binding assays, and virus infection experiments across a range of cell cultures from different species and humanized mice.
Most emerging human viruses come from wildlife, and these represent a significant threat to global public health and biosecurity - as demonstrated by the SARS coronavirus pandemic of 2002-03 and an ongoing SARS-like epidemic in the Middle East. This project seeks to understand what factors allow animal Coronaviruses to evolve and jump into the human population by studying virus diversity in a critical group of animals (bats), a sites of high risk for emergence (wildlife markets) in an emerging disease hotspot (China).
|Luo, Chu-Ming; Wang, Ning; Yang, Xing-Lou et al. (2018) Discovery of Novel Bat Coronaviruses in South China That Use the Same Receptor as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. J Virol 92:|
|Luo, Yun; Li, Bei; Jiang, Ren-Di et al. (2018) Longitudinal Surveillance of Betacoronaviruses in Fruit Bats in Yunnan Province, China During 2009-2016. Virol Sin 33:87-95|
|Zhou, Peng; Fan, Hang; Lan, Tian et al. (2018) Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin. Nature 556:255-258|
|Wu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Liang; Du, Jiang et al. (2018) Comparative analysis of rodent and small mammal viromes to better understand the wildlife origin of emerging infectious diseases. Microbiome 6:178|
|Wang, Ning; Li, Shi-Yue; Yang, Xing-Lou et al. (2018) Serological Evidence of Bat SARS-Related Coronavirus Infection in Humans, China. Virol Sin 33:104-107|
|Eskew, Evan A; Olival, Kevin J (2018) De-urbanization and Zoonotic Disease Risk. Ecohealth 15:707-712|
|Field, Hume Ernest (2018) Evidence of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in diverse Australian bat taxa. Zoonoses Public Health :|
|Hu, Ben; Zeng, Lei-Ping; Yang, Xing-Lou et al. (2017) Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus. PLoS Pathog 13:e1006698|
|Olival, Kevin J; Hosseini, Parviez R; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos et al. (2017) Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals. Nature 546:646-650|
|Olival, Kevin J; Willoughby, Anna R (2017) Prioritizing the 'Dormant' Flaviviruses. Ecohealth 14:1-2|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 17 publications