Cervical spine injuries, degenertion (spondylosis), nerve root compression (radiculopathy) and spinal cord compression (myelopathy) are the major causes of pain, deformity and neurological disfunction in the cervical region. Studies of the spinal column alone, while important, provide limited information about the cord and nerve roots. The purpose of the present proposal is to study in a comprehensive manner the mechanical basis of local, radicular and myelopathic symptomatology in the cervical spine. Such information is not available presently. This comprehensive study has three basic parts. Firstly, to determine ligamentous strains and intervertebral foramenal changes due to physiological movements of the cervical spine. Secondly, to measure physiological movements of, and strains in,, the nerve roots and spinal cord. Finally, to quantify 3-dimensional anatomy of the cervical spine in various physiological postures using cryomicrotome sectioning, X-rays and CT-scans. Significance of this work will be in several different areas. The comprehensive set of biomechanical data about the functioning relationships between the various components of the cervical spine system, namely, vertebrae, ligaments, spinal cord and nerve roots will be available for the first time. It will provide the basis for understanding the functioning of the cervical spine system. Thereby making it possible to correlate precisely the anatomic derangements with clinical presentation of symptoms in a patient. It will also be helpful in the design of new and more efficient diagonostic and treatment modalities for the various problems of the cervical spine.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
Research Project (R01)
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Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal Study Section (ORTH)
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Yale University
Schools of Medicine
New Haven
United States
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Grob, D; Crisco 3rd, J J; Panjabi, M M et al. (1992) Biomechanical evaluation of four different posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 17:480-90
Panjabi, M; Chang, D; Dvorak, J (1992) An analysis of errors in kinematic parameters associated with in vivo functional radiographs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 17:200-5
Panjabi, M M (1992) The stabilizing system of the spine. Part II. Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. J Spinal Disord 5:390-6;discussion 397
Panjabi, M M (1992) The stabilizing system of the spine. Part I. Function, dysfunction, adaptation, and enhancement. J Spinal Disord 5:383-9;discussion 397
Oda, T; Panjabi, M M; Crisco 3rd, J J (1991) Three-dimensional translational movements of the upper cervical spine. J Spinal Disord 4:411-9
Panjabi, M M; Dvorak, J; Crisco, J et al. (1991) [Instability in injury of the alar ligament. A biomechanical model] Orthopade 20:112-20
Panjabi, M; Dvorak, J; Crisco 3rd, J et al. (1991) Flexion, extension, and lateral bending of the upper cervical spine in response to alar ligament transections. J Spinal Disord 4:157-67
Crisco 3rd, J J; Oda, T; Panjabi, M M et al. (1991) Transections of the C1-C2 joint capsular ligaments in the cadaveric spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 16:S474-9
Pelker, R R; Duranceau, J S; Panjabi, M M (1991) Cervical spine stabilization. A three-dimensional, biomechanical evaluation of rotational stability, strength, and failure mechanisms. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 16:117-22
Panjabi, M; Dvorak, J; Crisco 3rd, J J et al. (1991) Effects of alar ligament transection on upper cervical spine rotation. J Orthop Res 9:584-93

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