The Report of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on the Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco (1986) not only highlights possible health risks related to using smokeless tobacco, but reflects concern with the increasing incidence of its use both by the general population and by young males in particular. The proposed five-year investigation will involve three stages: 1) Assess the psychosocial-behavioral processes involved in the initiation and use of smokeless tobacco among young males, based on a relevant social-psychological conceptual model. 2) Develop a prevention-deterrence program based on the theory-guided assessment of the target population. 3) Implement and evaluate this program in a three-year longitudinal study, utilizing Little League Baseball, Inc. players as the study population. Players with a professional major league baseball team (Houston Astros) will be involved in various facets of this investigation, capitalizing on their obvious influence as role models for Little League Players. The process analysis will consist of a cross-sectional Diagnostic Survey (N=260), focused interviews (N=156), and a cross-sectional Validation Survey (N=390). Data will be examined employing structural modeling techniques. The implementation and evaluation of the intervention program will include randomized block assignment of 270 Little League Baseball teams, approximately 3,510 players. Teams will be assigned to one intervention and two control groups, in an experimental, repeated measures design. Those players who are initially 9/10 years old will be tracked for three years. Older players in the intervention group will continue to receive the intervention until they graduate from Little League to Senior League at age 13. All older players participating in the project will continue to participated in measurement after graduation to Senior League. Dependent measures will include """"""""pipeline"""""""" - influenced self-reports reflecting cognitive and behavioral components of intention and behavior related to smokeless tobacco use as well as chemical assays (saliva thiocyanate and cotinine). Preliminary analyses used to examine the impact of the intervention will be performed employing stratified samples ANCOVA. These will be supplemented by path analysis, longitudinal analysis of program impact, etc. The result are expected to provide information concerning the determinants of smokeless tobacco use and a program which can be utilized to deter its use among what apparently is a high risk group.