The overall goals of this longitudinal study are to examine the etiologic determinants of adult tobacco use and dependence and the consequences of use on the individual's functioning. The original sample in 1975 consisted of 960 mothers whose children's average age was 5 (T1). Subsequently, children and their mothers were interviewed when the children's average age was 13 (T2), 15 (T3), and 21 (T4). At T5, only the young adults (average age 26) were interviewed. A sixth data collection (T6), when the participants are an average age of 33 years old, is proposed to accomplish the following: (1) to examine interrelations and interactions of personality, family, peer, and ecological factors (starting in early childhood) as they affect the course of tobacco use and dependence over time (i.e., stability, and change); and (2) to study the consequences of long-term tobacco use/dependence on adult intra- and interpersonal functioning. As in the past, separate interviews with adults will be conducted in their own homes by trained interviewers. Scales with adequate psychometric properties measuring the independent variables will be developed from the interview schedules. The primary analytic techniques will be causal analysis and/or hierarchical or logistic regression. The significance of this study lies in its longitudinal design with in-depth intra- and interpersonal data available at several crucial stages of development. These data allow us not only to examine the pathways to tobacco use and dependence from the very beginning but also to study the course of tobacco use over time, i.e., the factors related to the subject's becoming more (or less) involved in tobacco use/abuse over a span of years. We can also examine the factors related to cessation of smoking. Such knowledge will help pinpoint those adolescents/young adults/adults at risk for increased tobacco use/dependence and will provide detailed and specific guidelines for prevention and treatment. Our longitudinal study of the consequences of tobacco use is unique in that the long-term effects of use can be evaluated to see if their impact is cumulative. Identification of childhood and adolescent factors that can lessen or compensate for the impact of tobacco use on later functioning would provide additional aids for effective prevention and treatment efforts.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Social Sciences, Nursing, Epidemiology and Methods 4 (SNEM)
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Marcus, Stephen
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New York University
Schools of Medicine
New York
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Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G et al. (2017) Compulsive buying and quality of life: An estimate of the monetary cost of compulsive buying among adults in early midlife. Psychiatry Res 252:208-214
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Morojele, Neo K et al. (2017) Psychosocial Factors Related to the Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behaviors in Early Midlife. Subst Use Misuse 52:1328-1337
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu et al. (2016) Psychosocial Predictors of Mental Health Service Utilization Among Women During their Mid-Sixties. J Behav Health Serv Res 43:143-54
Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S; Finch, Stephen J et al. (2015) Trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood predicting unemployment in the mid 30s. Am J Addict 24:452-9
Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu et al. (2015) Longitudinal Smoking Patterns: Do They Predict Symptoms of ADHD in Adults? J Atten Disord :
Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu et al. (2015) Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behavior. J Child Fam Stud 24:2957-2965
Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Rubenstone, Elizabeth et al. (2015) Insomnia in adults: the impact of earlier cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood. J Addict Med 9:40-5
Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Burke, Lindsay et al. (2014) Trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of unemployment status. Nicotine Tob Res 16:1559-66
Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu (2014) Joint trajectories of smoking and depressive mood: associations with later low perceived self-control and low well-being. J Addict Dis 33:53-64
Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Balka, Elinor B et al. (2014) Impact of conjoint trajectories of body mass index and marijuana use on short sleep duration. Am J Addict 23:176-83

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