Type 1 interferons are critical regulators of innate immunity and antiviral responses. To exert their actions they often also inhibit cell growth. The mechanisms by which interferons inhibit cell proliferation vary and in many circumstances are not well understood. In some cells type 1 interferons (IFNalpha/beta) induce apoptosis; in other cell lines IFNalpha/beta inhibit cell growth without induction of apoptosis, and in certain circumstances these cytokines actually prevent apoptosis by other stimuli. In vivo and in cell culture, IFNalpha/beta stimulates apoptosis of immature B cells. Preliminary results using bll-7-dependent B cells from knock out mice that do not express Stat1, Stat1, Stat5a/b, or Tyk2 indicate that interferon activation of early response genes regulated by the Stat1 and Stat2 transcription factors is not necessary for the apoptotic actions of IFNa/a. However, expression of the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 is required for IFNalkpha/beta stimulated death of pro B cells as well as activation of Stat3 by these cytokines. These in vitro results are also seen in vivo where Tyk2-null mice are resistant to LCMV stimulated loss of B cells from bone marrow and spleen. We hypothesize that IFNalpha/beta mediated apoptosis requires the kinase activity of Tyk2, resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation ofStat3 and regulation of genes by this transcription factor that lead to programmed cell death of pro B cells.
The Specific Aims are: 1. Determine the domains in Tyk2 required for IFNBeta stimulated apoptosis of IL-7-dependent bone marrow-derived B cells. 2. Determine the role of phosphorylated Stat3 in IFNBeta stimulated PCD of B cells 3. Identify proteins in primary IL-7 dependent B cells that require the expression of Tyk2 to activate Stat3 and cause IFNBeta stimulated apoptosis.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Experimental Immunology Study Section (EI)
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Mccarthy, Susan A
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Cleveland Clinic Lerner
Other Basic Sciences
Schools of Medicine
United States
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