Age-dependent alterations in sex hormone milieu, tissue oxidant status, and inflammation are purported endogenous risk factors of human prostate cancer (PCa). Treatment of Noble rats, a human PCa-relevant model, with testosterone (T) and estradiol-17beta (E2) for 16 weeks induced epithelial dysplasia, a proliferative lesion that resembles human prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the lateral prostates (LPs), but not in the ventral prostate (VPs) of treated rats. The LP dyslasia is frequently attended by inflammation and resembles the human proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), a putative precursor to PIN and PCa. Longer treatment of rats with T causes PCa exclusively in the LPs of 100 percent of the treated rats. T treatment also causes hyperprolactinemia, which induces inflammation in the LP. Marked oxidative stress (OS)- and nitrative stress (NS)-related damages, aberrant expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NAD(P)H oxidases (NOXs), and NO synthases (NOSs), as well as disruption of anti-oxidant defenses were noted in the dysplastic LPs. We here hypothesize that T-supported E2 action contributes to early neoplastic development directly in rat LP by induction of chronic OS/NS that ultimately leads to tumorigenesis. Moreover, the, E2-induced hyperprolactinemia activates tissue inflammatory responses that inflict additional OS/NS damages, thus exacerbating the process.
Three aims are proposed.
Aim I - To determine if T+ E2 induced LP dysplasia is accompanied by induction of OS/NS directly in the prostatic epithelial compartment and that this process is exacerbated by the presence of inflammation. Laser-capture-microscopy will be used to sample normal and dysplastic epithelia, and their adjacent stroma, in areas with and without evidence of inflammation, to assess the hormone- induced versus inflammation-mediated OS/NS-associated changes. Five types of biomarkers will be evaluated: 1) disruption of OS/NS generation/defense pathways, 2) OS/NS-induced lipid, DNA and protein damages, 3) altered expression of T+E2 induced oncogenes, 4) imbalances in cell proliferation and apoptosis, 5) production of inflammation mediators via COX and/or lypoxygenase (LOX) pathways.
Aim 2 - To determine if combined celecoxib (a specific COX-2 inhibitor) and zileuton (a 5-LOX inhibitor) treatment negates or diminishes inflammation and/or dysplasia in the LPs of T+E2 treated rats and if this effect is attended by diminution of OS/NS-associated biomarkers.
Aim 3 - Using a LP organ culture system, we will further elucidate the direct cancer-promoting actions of E2, T, DHT, and PRL, in the absence of inflammation or systemic confounding factors.
Aim 4 -To determine whether advancement of age renders the rat prostate more susceptible to hormone-induced inflammation and/or carcinogenesis. Results from our studies should help explicate the relation between inflammation and carcinogenesis in the human prostate, a topic of intense debate.
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