This is a renewal (competing continuation) for a study that focuses on preventing drug use and related risky behavior in club settings that feature electronic music dance events (EMDEs). Our first study provided evidence that the number of drug users attending this type of event was sufficiently large to warrant the next step, i.e., to test the feasibility of implementing previously-proven environmental prevention strategies in clubs. The proposed study will implement and test the feasibility of implementing environmental prevention strategies designed to reduce drug use and other risky behaviors in clubs (e.g., presence of drug use and drug users in the clubs and drug-related and other risky behaviors such as drugged driving, overdoses, sexual risk-taking, aggressive behaviors).
Our specific aims are as follows:
Specific Aim 1 : To measure environmental indicators, host policies, and patron characteristics and behaviors prior to implementing environmental change strategies in clubs.
Specific Aim 2 : To implement environmental interventions in the clubs and to assess and track the feasibility of implementing these strategies and fidelity of this implementation.
Specific Aim 3 : To examine the changes from pre- to post-intervention levels of drug use and drug related risks, accounting for the changes in the adoption of environmental prevention strategies. A total of four clubs will be included in this feasibility study to test the environmental prevention strategies. Two clubs will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at the start of the second year, while the other two clubs will be required to wait an additional year for the intervention. This modified crossover design is discussed in our analyses section. Our data collection timeframe includes 5 major waves of data collection approximately six months apart and beginning with baseline measures prior to intervention. Each major data wave will include multiple sources of data: Observations of clubs, Host/staff interviews (20 interviews per wave) and Portal data collections from patrons (n=2000). Advertising assessments also will be collected monthly. Additional observations of clubs will occur halfway between the major data wave collection and advertising assessments will occur monthly. Measures from our prior studies as well as some additional questions are planned (e.g., host and staff interviews about barriers encountered in the implementation of environmental strategies). Hence, the overall design for this competitive renewal builds upon the measures we have tested in the prior studies (see appendices) as well as implementing new measures based upon the intervention and what we have learned from the prior work (see measurement section below). The proposed application is not an efficacy study, rather a feasibility study designed to test whether the environmental strategies for clubs can be implemented, to assess the barriers and impediments to the implementation and to demonstrate change within a small number of clubs that can warrant a full-scale efficacy study across numerous sites in a subsequent application.

Public Health Relevance

The research will test the feasibility of environmental prevention strategies for clubs that feature electronic music dance events (EMDEs), locations having high rates of drug use and other risky behaviors. Working with club owners, managers, and staff, this intervention will test whether strategies to reduce risks. Strengths of the study include the focus on young working adults, as well as college students. Further, our initial work indicates that a diversity of individuals is found in this setting. Finally, the study team has developed excellent collaborative relationships with the entertainment industry making this effort especially timely.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Community-Level Health Promotion Study Section (CLHP)
Program Officer
Lloyd, Jacqueline
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Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
United States
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Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda A; Voas, Robert B et al. (2017) Social Drinking Groups and Risk Experience in Nightclubs: Latent Class Analysis. Health Risk Soc 19:316-335
Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth et al. (2016) Drinking group characteristics related to willingness to engage in protective behaviors with the group at nightclubs. Psychol Addict Behav 30:168-74
Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert; Miller, Brenda A et al. (2016) Night club patrons who feel safe will return: Evidence to encourage management to address club violence. J Safety Res 56:29-32
Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert; Miller, Brenda et al. (2015) Clubbing With Familiar Social Groups: Relaxed Vigilance and Implications for Risk. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 76:924-7
Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark et al. (2015) Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors. Prev Sci 16:527-37
Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda A; Johnson, Mark B et al. (2015) Method of transportation and drinking among club patrons. Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav 32:11-22
Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Johnson, Mark B et al. (2014) Indicators of club management practices and biological measurements of patrons' drug and alcohol use. Subst Use Misuse 49:1878-87
Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Branner, Amy C et al. (2013) Assessment of club patrons' alcohol and drug use: the use of biological markers. Am J Prev Med 45:637-43
Voas, Robert B; Johnson, Mark B; Miller, Brenda A (2013) Alcohol and drug use among young adults driving to a drinking location. Drug Alcohol Depend 132:69-73
Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Branner, Amy et al. (2013) Group influences on individuals' drinking and other drug use at clubs. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 74:280-7

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