Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and its use is increasing among children. Although considered safe, the majority of empirical data on the effects of caffeine have been collected in adults. Our previous studies, supported by a KO1 from NIDA, have demonstrated that caffeine has dose-dependent effects on physiological, mood, and energy intake in adolescents and that boys appear to be more sensitive to the effects of caffeine than girls. The following proposal describes a series of laboratory studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms underlying these gender differences, including pubertal development, steroid hormone concentrations, menstrual cycle phase, and adenosine receptor genotypes. These studies are important because they will provide much needed information on the effects of caffeine in children and adolescents as well as identify mechanisms that influence gender differences in response to caffeine and, perhaps, other drugs of abuse.
Our previous research suggests that the effects of caffeine in adolescents vary by gender. This proposal uses a multi-level, developmental approach to investigate the mechanisms underlying these gender differences in children and adolescents. The findings from these studies will help elucidate basic mechanisms that underlie gender differences in the response to caffeine and, perhaps other drugs of abuse and will improve our ability to identify factors that place individuals at higher risk for drug use and abuse.
|Temple, Jennifer L; Van der Kloet, Erika; Atkins, Amanda M et al. (2017) Daily exposure to either a high- or low-energy-dense snack food reduces its reinforcing value in adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring) 25:432-437|
|Temple, Jennifer L; Bernard, Christophe; Lipshultz, Steven E et al. (2017) The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review. Front Psychiatry 8:80|
|Temple, Jennifer L; Ziegler, Amanda M; Graczyk, Adam M et al. (2017) Effects of acute and chronic caffeine on risk-taking behavior in children and adolescents. J Psychopharmacol 31:561-568|
|Temple, Jennifer L; Ziegler, Amanda M; Epstein, Leonard H (2016) Influence of Price and Labeling on Energy Drink Purchasing in an Experimental Convenience Store. J Nutr Educ Behav 48:54-9.e1|
|Temple, Jennifer L (2016) Behavioral sensitization of the reinforcing value of food: What food and drugs have in common. Prev Med 92:90-99|
|Temple, Jennifer L; Ziegler, Amanda M; Martin, Catherine et al. (2015) Subjective Responses to Caffeine Are Influenced by Caffeine Dose, Sex, and Pubertal Stage. J Caffeine Res 5:167-175|
|Ziegler, Amanda M; Temple, Jennifer L (2015) Soda Consumption is Associated with Risk-Taking Behaviors in Adolescents. Am J Health Behav 39:761-71|
|Temple, Jennifer L; Ziegler, Amanda M; Graczyk, Adam et al. (2014) Cardiovascular responses to caffeine by gender and pubertal stage. Pediatrics 134:e112-9|
|Temple, Jennifer L (2014) Factors that influence the reinforcing value of foods and beverages. Physiol Behav 136:97-103|