The goal of the proposed study, Health benefits of Aerobic and Resistance Training in individuals with type 2 Diabetes (HART-D), is to compare the effect of resistance training alone, and resistance in combination with aerobic training to aerobic training alone on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), in initially sedentary women and men with type 2 diabetes (T2D). While it is generally accepted that regular exercise provides substantial health benefits to individuals with T2D, the exact exercise prescription in terms of type (aerobic versus resistance versus both) still remains largely unexplored, particularly in regard to week-to-week glucose control as assessed by HbA1c. For example, there has been very little research performed that examines the benefit of resistance training alone in individuals with diabetes, and there exists no adequately powered or controlled trials that have examined the benefits of combining resistance training with aerobic training. This is particularly problematic given that most recommendations/guidelines from national organizations for exercise prescription in individuals with T2D suggest a combination of aerobic and resistance training for maximal health benefits. There is a need for more research to help better formulate exercise recommendations for patients with T2D as well as potentially provide more exercise options, which is very important given the small percentage of individuals with T2D who regularly participate in exercise. The study group will be sedentary women and men with T2D, aged 30 to 75 years. We will randomly assign 300 individuals equally to an aerobic exercise training-only group (AT), a resistance training-only group (RT), or a combination of aerobic plus resistance training (AT+RT). The AT individuals will participate in 3 or 4 training sessions each week for 9 months, progressing to a total energy expenditure of 12 kcal/kg/week (KKW), which is an exercise dose consistent with the current public health recommendations for physical activity for individuals with T2D. The RT group will participate in 3 sessions per week (30-45 minutes each), which focus on large muscle groups. Individuals in the AT+RT group will receive both the 12 KKW of aerobic training and a reduced resistance-training regimen of 2 sessions per week at 20 minutes per session. This combination regimen represents the exact exercise recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association. Simply stated, we wish to examine if a RT has comparable benefits in lowering HbA1c to a standard AT program, and if a hybrid program of AT +RT is superior to AT alone (& RT alone) in reducing HbA1c. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c, an integrated measure of blood glucose control over the past 8-12 weeks. ? ? ?

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Psychosocial Risk and Disease Prevention Study Section (PRDP)
Program Officer
Hunter, Christine
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Lsu Pennington Biomedical Research Center
Baton Rouge
United States
Zip Code
Pandey, Ambarish; Swift, Damon L; McGuire, Darren K et al. (2015) Metabolic Effects of Exercise Training Among Fitness-Nonresponsive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The HART-D Study. Diabetes Care 38:1494-501
Sénéchal, Martin; Johannsen, Neil M; Swift, Damon L et al. (2015) Association between Changes in Muscle Quality with Exercise Training and Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measures in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the HART-D Study. PLoS One 10:e0135057
Henagan, Tara M; Stewart, Laura K; Forney, Laura A et al. (2014) PGC1? -1 Nucleosome Position and Splice Variant Expression and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Individuals. PPAR Res 2014:895734
Earnest, Conrad P; Johannsen, Neil M; Swift, Damon L et al. (2014) Aerobic and strength training in concomitant metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 46:1293-301
Sénéchal, Martin; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M et al. (2013) Changes in body fat distribution and fitness are associated with changes in hemoglobin A1c after 9 months of exercise training: results from the HART-D study. Diabetes Care 36:2843-9
Johannsen, Neil M; Swift, Damon L; Lavie, Carl J et al. (2013) Categorical analysis of the impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training, alone and in combination, on cardiorespiratory fitness levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the HART-D study. Diabetes Care 36:3305-12
Myers, Valerie H; McVay, Megan A; Brashear, Meghan M et al. (2013) Exercise training and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 36:1884-90
Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Earnest, Conrad P et al. (2012) Effect of exercise training modality on C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:1028-34
Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Myers, Valerie H et al. (2012) The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. PLoS One 7:e42785
Tam, Charmaine S; Sparks, Lauren M; Johannsen, Darcy L et al. (2012) Low macrophage accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetics and elderly subjects. Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:1530-3

Showing the most recent 10 out of 12 publications