ZnO Nanorod-based Early Biomarker Screening for Acute Kidney Injury. The objective of this proposal is to utilize recent advances in nanomaterials to develop improved tools for the detection and quantification of biologically and medically relevant protein markers. Our preliminary research demonstrates that nanoscale ZnO platforms, without any chemical or biological amplification processes, enable increased fluorescence detection of DNA or protein by a factor of 1000 when compared to other commonly used substrates. This superior optical nature of ZnO nanomaterials will be extremely useful as advanced biosensors and/or biodetection platforms for applications in medicine and public health. The planned research develops an effective method capable of directly assembling novel, arrayed ZnO nanomaterials with their optical properties tuned for optimal fluorescence enhancement. Subsequently, the proposed research will address the growing interest in protein marker assays, especially in meeting the demand for highly-parallel and miniaturized identification of early detection markers. We will develop ZnO nanorod assays for the sensitive and unambiguous identification of kidney disease biomarker proteins. Then, we will use the ZnO nanorod assays to measure several candidate biomarker levels in urine samples collected in a prospective manner from patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit of the Penn State Hershey Medical Center. We will also demonstrate that our ZnO nanorod platforms in an array format have a great potential for rapid, high-throughput detection devices that are low-cost and, at the same time, effective in screening for multiple markers in a parallel format. Our expectation is that ZnO nanorod based platforms will have vastly superior detection capabilities than currently available techniques. These results are significant because they are expected to lead to the development of sensitive, low cost assays of clinically relevant markers of human disease. This versatile platform will also facilitate detection of environmental hazards and chemical and biological threats.

Public Health Relevance

Early detection is critical to reducing the morbidity, mortality and costs associated with disease. By developing a sensitive, accurate and efficient means for biomarker detection, this research will facilitate the diagnosis and care of individuals with a wide variety of diseases.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Research Project (R01)
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Nanotechnology Study Section (NANO)
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Kimmel, Paul
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Georgetown University
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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Truong, Johnson; Singh, Manpreet; Hansen, Matthew et al. (2017) Polarization-resolved mechanistic investigation of fluorescence signal intensification on zinc oxide nanorod ends. Nanoscale 9:8164-8175
Singh, Manpreet; Truong, Johnson; Reeves, W Brian et al. (2017) Emerging Cytokine Biosensors with Optical Detection Modalities and Nanomaterial-Enabled Signal Enhancement. Sensors (Basel) 17:
Choi, Daniel S; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing et al. (2016) Evaluation of polarization rotation in the scattering responses from individual semiconducting oxide nanorods. AIP Adv 6:045213
Hahm, Jong-In (2016) Fundamental Properties of One-Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials and Implementations in Various Detection Modes of Enhanced Biosensing. Annu Rev Phys Chem 67:691-717
Singh, Manpreet; Alabanza, Anginelle; Gonzalez, Lorelis E et al. (2016) Ultratrace level determination and quantitative analysis of kidney injury biomarkers in patient samples attained by zinc oxide nanorods. Nanoscale 8:4613-22
Xie, Tian; Song, Sheng; Schwenke, Konrad et al. (2015) Low-Index ZnO Crystal Plane-Specific Binding Behavior of Whole Immunoglobulin G Proteins. Langmuir 31:10493-9
Choi, Daniel S; Singh, Manpreet; Zhou, Hebing et al. (2015) Scattering attributes of one-dimensional semiconducting oxide nanomaterials individually probed for varying light-matter interaction angles. Appl Phys Lett 107:151110
Singh, Manpreet; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Choi, Daniel S et al. (2015) Effects of crystallographic facet-specific peptide adsorption along single ZnO nanorods on the characteristic fluorescence intensification on nanorod ends (FINE) phenomenon. Nanoscale 7:18813-26
Singh, Manpreet; Jiang, Ruibin; Coia, Heidi et al. (2015) Insight into factors affecting the presence, degree, and temporal stability of fluorescence intensification on ZnO nanorod ends. Nanoscale 7:1424-36
Choi, Daniel S; Singh, Manpreet; Song, Sheng et al. (2015) Scattering Intensity and Directionality Probed Along Individual Zinc Oxide Nanorods with Precisely Controlled Light Polarization and Nanorod Orientation. Photonics 2:684-701

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