Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is an incurable stem cell disorder that often progresses to myeloid leukemia. An abnormal epigenetic modulation has been highlighted as playing a crucial part in the pathogenesis, progress, and evolution of this disorder. To date, effective therapy for MDS has proved elusive, with supportive care used to ameliorate symptoms, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation the only available curative option. MicroRNAs have recently been implicated in hematological malignancies through their inhibition of the expression of specific target genes. In this context, we have identified an oncogenic microRNA that enhances the self-renewal of stem cells and remodels the epigenetic landscape toward hematological malignancies. To better understand through its activity the key pathways involved in stem cell biology and MDS pathogenesis, we propose the following Specific Aims: 1. Determine how TET2 directly contributes to function of an oncogenic microRNA in hematopoiesis We have generated transgenic mice conditionally expressing this newly-identified oncogenic microRNA in the hematopoietic compartment, which in turn exhibits lower levels of ten-eleven translocation gene 2 (TET2) and global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine than control cells. Bioinformatics analyses have consistently identified TET2 as a potential target of this microRNA, whose expression was directly anti-correlated with the levels of TET2 in our large-cohort data set of patients with MDS, leading us to hypothesize that TET2 is its key target. The current proposal aims to elucidate the effect of ectopic expression of TET2 on the hematopoietic phenotypes induced by this microRNA both in vivo and in vitro. We expect our studies will provide a rationale for the therapeutic potential of targeting TET2 for the treatment of hematological malignancies. 2. Test the therapeutic potential of microRNA inhibition in preclinical models of MDS. We have shown a direct correlation between aberrant expression of this microRNA and poor MDS survival rates. Our preliminary findings demonstrated in vitro that blocking this microRNA reduces leukemogenicity in mouse primary leukemic cells and in human leukemia cell lines, accompanied by elevation of TET2, with minimal injury to normal murine hematopoiesis. In this aim, we propose to assess the safety and efficacy of inhibition of microRNA in human primary leukemia samples. We will integrate these findings with the data of ongoing pre-clinical trials in faithful mouse models of myelodysplastic syndrome, and will finally explore the potential to initiate formal clinical trial towards effective eradication of myelodysplastic syndrome. 3. To elucidate mechanistically the key target genes regulated by the microRNA-TET2 pathway: To further understand the consequences of repression of TET2 protein by the microRNA in hematopoiesis, we will examine the effects of aberrant microRNA-TET2 cross-talk on putative targets of TET2 protein. We will focus our analysis on the genetic manipulation of these genes, both in vivo and in vitro, in murine hematopoietic stem cells from transgenic mice, to observe the subsequent effects on MDS pathogenesis induced by microRNA. These proposed studies will not only identify microRNA as a potent proto-oncogene, but will also define aberrations in the microRNA-TET2 regulatory network as one of the most frequent events in hematological malignancies, with important therapeutic implications. This work will be conducted with the support of the following experts; Drs. David E. Avigan (Hematology/Oncology), Jan Vijg (Genetics, Epigenetics and microRNA biogenesis), Julie Teruya-Feldstein (Hemato-pathology), and Toshio Suda (Stem Cells). Importantly, Dr. Paul S. Frenette (Stem Cell niche) is closely supporting our research program along with Dr. Arthur Skoultchi (Epigenetic reprogramming in Hematology).

Public Health Relevance

Various microRNAs and epigenetic machineries have recently come to light as novel regulatory elements of both stem cell self-renewal and leukemogenesis. The broad objective of the proposed research is to illuminate through both genetic and microRNA-decoying approaches the role of one such potential regulatory element, microRNA-epigenetic cross talk, in the pathogenesis of an incurable stem cell disorder, myelodysplastic syndrome. These studies have the potential for a high impact in the clinic, as we believe a targeted approach of epigenetic reprogramming by microRNA will eventually enhance and extend the health and well-being of patients through the fine tuning of stem cell function. Indeed, one microRNA decoying technique has already come of age for the treatment of blood-borne disease, and others will certainly prove highly effective for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Our proposed studies are designed to uncover a function for a microRNA-epigenetic pathway in the control of hematopoiesis, a finding, which will in turn lead to novel therapeutic approaches to disease onset, progression and management for patients with myeloid malignancies, and possibly other forms of tissue tumorigenesis.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
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Molecular and Cellular Hematology Study Section (MCH)
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Bishop, Terry Rogers
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Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Inc
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Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke (2018) Hematopoietic stem cell fate through metabolic control. Exp Hematol 64:1-11
Bonora, Massimo; Ito, Kyoko; Morganti, Claudia et al. (2018) Membrane-potential compensation reveals mitochondrial volume expansion during HSC commitment. Exp Hematol 68:30-37.e1
Weiss, Cary N; Ito, Keisuke (2017) A Macro View of MicroRNAs: The Discovery of MicroRNAs and Their Role in Hematopoiesis and Hematologic Disease. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 334:99-175
Turcotte, Raphaël; Alt, Clemens; Runnels, Judith M et al. (2017) Image-guided transplantation of single cells in the bone marrow of live animals. Sci Rep 7:3875
Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke (2016) Metabolism and the Control of Cell Fate Decisions and Stem Cell Renewal. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 32:399-409
Ito, Kyoko; Turcotte, Raphaël; Cui, Jinhua et al. (2016) Self-renewal of a purified Tie2+ hematopoietic stem cell population relies on mitochondrial clearance. Science 354:1156-1160
Sato, Hanae; Wheat, Justin C; Steidl, Ulrich et al. (2016) DNMT3A and TET2 in the Pre-Leukemic Phase of Hematopoietic Disorders. Front Oncol 6:187
Ito, Keisuke; Frenette, Paul S (2016) HSC Contribution in Making Steady-State Blood. Immunity 45:464-466
Weiss, Cary N; Ito, Keisuke (2015) DNA damage: a sensible mediator of the differentiation decision in hematopoietic stem cells and in leukemia. Int J Mol Sci 16:6183-201
Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke (2015) Resistance in the Ribosome: RUNX1, pre-LSCs, and HSPCs. Cell Stem Cell 17:129-31

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