Obesity, which has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, is associated with an increased risk of numerous metabolic abnormalities including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). NAFLD is increasingly common, and now affects over 30% of the population in the USA. Insulin resistance is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and excessive accumulation of triglycerides is a hallmark of NAFLD. Because intact insulin signaling is required for lipogenesis, the defect in insulin signaling should reduce hepatic triglyceride content; however, patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes commonly have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the majority of patients with NAFLD are also obese and/or have T2D. The underlying mechanisms leading to the paradoxical co-occurrence of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance are not well understood. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of the deacetylase Sirtuin 1 or treatment with resveratrol, a Sirtuin 1 activator, not only improved hepatic steatosis, but also restored insulin sensitivity in tissues with insulin resistance. These results suggest that an acetyltransferase can antagonize Sirtuin 1?s activity, causing hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We observed a significant increase in hepatic acetyltransferase P300?s protein levels in high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice and ob/ob mice through the IRE1-XBP1s pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Depletion of P300 or inhibition of P300 acetyltransferase activity decreased lipogenic gene expression and increased insulin sensitivity. Therefore, P300 uniquely increases lipogenesis and disrupts insulin signaling in the liver of obesity. We will assess the role of elevated P300 in promoting hepatic lipogenesis in Aim 1. We will define the molecular mechanisms of P300?s promotion of hepatic steatosis in Aim 2. We propose to determine whether P300 acetyltransferase activity is a therapeutic target for obesity/T2D in Aim 3. We believe that P300 plays an important role in the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance, linking inflammatory and metabolic diseases.
Patients with diabetes and obesity commonly have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Accordingly, the majority of patients with NAFLD also have obesity and diabetes. This proposal seeks to uncover the mechanisms underlying the development of fatty liver disease in obesity, and new therapeutic target for patients with fatty liver disease and obesity.