Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM) negatively affects growth of lung function in children and can lead to COPD in adults, but there is a dearth of information on the long-term effects of early life exposure to PM. In the proposed research we address the effects of exposure during infancy to biomass smoke PM on respiratory health later in childhood. Our mechanistic hypothesis is that the combustion-generated organic compounds present on fine particles in biomass smoke induce oxidative stress, upregulation of inflammatory cytokine production, and subsequent airway inflammation. Variation in the genotypes of key antioxidant enzymes (e.g., GSTM1 and GSTP1) may help to identify which children are more susceptible to the effects of inhaled PM on respiratory health. We propose to conduct a longitudinal follow-up study of a birth cohort of infants currently enrolled in a NIH-funded, randomized stove intervention trial to reduce acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) in rural Guatemala. The improved cookstove markedly reduces biomass smoke exposure. After the participating child is 18 months old all families are offered the improved stove. Our proposed longitudinal follow-up study is designed to a) determine whether exposure to higher levels of PM during the first 18 months of life is associated with increased respiratory symptoms, bronchodilator responsiveness, sensitization to aeroallergens, and decreased rate of growth of lung function and somatic growth;and b) determine whether the GSTM1 null genotype renders children more susceptible and the GSTP1val105 variant less susceptible to the development of PM-induced oxidative stress and chronic respiratory effects. The effects of biomass smoke exposure have never been studied in a longitudinal design with quantitative exposure assessment. The current randomized intervention trial provides a unique opportunity to study the long-term effects of high exposure to biomass smoke/PM during the critical time window of lung development if follow-up is extended until later in childhood.

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National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
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Epidemiology of Clinical Disorders and Aging Study Section (ECDA)
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Gray, Kimberly A
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University of California Berkeley
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Schools of Public Health
United States
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Guarnieri, Michael; Diaz, Esperanza; Pope, Daniel et al. (2015) Lung Function in Rural Guatemalan Women Before and After a Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Wood Smoke Exposure: Results From the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects and Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Chest 148:1184-1192
Pope, Daniel; Diaz, Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone et al. (2015) Exposure to household air pollution from wood combustion and association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in nonsmoking women: results from the RESPIRE trial, Guatemala. Environ Health Perspect 123:285-92
Thompson, Lisa M; Yousefi, Paul; PeƱaloza, ReneƩ et al. (2014) Genetic modification of the effect of maternal household air pollution exposure on birth weight in Guatemalan newborns. Reprod Toxicol 50:19-26
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McCracken, John P; Schwartz, Joel; Diaz, Anaite et al. (2013) Longitudinal relationship between personal CO and personal PM2.5 among women cooking with woodfired cookstoves in Guatemala. PLoS One 8:e55670
Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R (2012) Temperature dataloggers as stove use monitors (SUMs): Field methods and signal analysis. Biomass Bioenergy 47:459-468
Lam, Nicholas L; Chen, Yanju; Weyant, Cheryl et al. (2012) Household light makes global heat: high black carbon emissions from kerosene wick lamps. Environ Sci Technol 46:13531-8
Lam, Nick; Nicas, Mark; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse et al. (2011) Non-invasive measurement of carbon monoxide burden in Guatemalan children and adults following wood-fired temazcal (sauna-bath) use. J Environ Monit 13:2172-81

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