The long term goal of this BRP remains the development of a clinically useful retinal prosthesis for patients blinded by outer retinal degenerations, such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. In the first funding period, we not only completed all our aims, including the creation and long-term animal testing of a fully functional 16 electrode prototype system, but we also successfully implanted six subjects with this device, the world's only active long-term retinal prostheses, in a FDA-approved study. In the next phase of our research, we will: 1. Complete the development of a versatile epiretinal prosthesis (A-60), test its reliability and safety in animals, and implant it in humans. Through a unique pairing of electrophysiological recordings in animal models of retinal degeneration and clinical experiments in human subjects, we will use this device to: 2. Determine electrode array design specifications, compare epiretinal and subretinal configurations, determine electrical stimulation algorithms to maximize spatial resolution and brightness range, and determine the need for eye tracking in a next generation retinal prosthesis. Finally, we will 3. Design, test, and implant in humans a next generation retinal prosthesis to restore useful vision. To accomplish these challenging but attainable goals, this proposal brings together a sophisticated multidisciplinary team including a non-profit foundation (AMF, with 30+ years of implantable device expertise and specialized facilities), three academic institutions (USC for human clinical testing and patch-clamp physiology; Doheny Eye Institute for surgical and large animal studies; and The Salk Institute for multi- electrode physiology) and a private company (Second Sight for engineering research and development, manufacturing, and regulatory). Our continued collaboration with engineers, scientists and physicians will allow us to achieve our goal of providing many blind patients with an important therapy where none currently exists.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-BDCN-F (55))
Program Officer
Neuhold, Lisa
Project Start
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Support Year
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Second Sight Medical Products, Inc.
United States
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Dagnelie, Gislin; Christopher, Punita; Arditi, Aries et al. (2017) Performance of real-world functional vision tasks by blind subjects improves after implantation with the Argus® II retinal prosthesis system. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 45:152-159
da Cruz, Lyndon; Dorn, Jessy D; Humayun, Mark S et al. (2016) Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial. Ophthalmology 123:2248-54
Ho, Allen C; Humayun, Mark S; Dorn, Jessy D et al. (2015) Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind. Ophthalmology 122:1547-54
Dorn, Jessy D; Ahuja, Ashish K; Caspi, Avi et al. (2013) The Detection of Motion by Blind Subjects With the Epiretinal 60-Electrode (Argus II) Retinal Prosthesis. JAMA Ophthalmol 131:183-9
de Juan Jr, Eugene; Spencer, Rand; Barale, Pierre-Olivier et al. (2013) Extraction of retinal tacks from subjects implanted with an epiretinal visual prosthesis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 251:2471-6
da Cruz, Lyndon; Coley, Brian F; Dorn, Jessy et al. (2013) The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss. Br J Ophthalmol 97:632-6
Ahuja, A K; Yeoh, J; Dorn, J D et al. (2013) Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2:1
Ahuja, Ashish Kishore; Behrend, Matthew R (2013) The Argus™ II retinal prosthesis: factors affecting patient selection for implantation. Prog Retin Eye Res 36:1-23
Humayun, Mark S; Dorn, Jessy D; da Cruz, Lyndon et al. (2012) Interim results from the international trial of Second Sight's visual prosthesis. Ophthalmology 119:779-88
Nanduri, Devyani; Fine, Ione; Horsager, Alan et al. (2012) Frequency and amplitude modulation have different effects on the percepts elicited by retinal stimulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:205-14

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