The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) is the causative agent of the AIDS pandemic. In the absence of a vaccine, identification of targets for development of agents directed against the rapidly emerging resistant variants is critical. The virus must be released from infected cells to spread infection and for this process it exploits cellular proteins. The objective of this projet is to identify key proteins and determine how they facilitate assembly and release. Previous studies established the role of Tsg101 and ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) machinery in trafficking of the viral proteins to budding sites on the plasma membrane. Since this machinery functions to sort and deliver cell surface receptors whose signaling is no longer required to lysosomal or proteasomal compartments in the cell interior for degradation, understanding how the virus circumvents this fate will provide information for formulation of novel anti-viral strategies. Preliminary data derived through proteomic, biochemical and cell biological analyses conducted in the previous funding period indicates that the structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, which is the only viral gene product required for formation and release of virus-like particles, directs the recruitment of calcium signaling machinery for this purpose. We propose to identify the determinants in Gag that are required for recruitment (Specific Aim 1), define the contributions of the recruited cellular proteins (Specific Aim 2) and characterize their physical association to the viral protein and each other (Specific Aim 3). Chimeric Gag proteins with domains derived from HIV- 1 Gag, whose budding is dependent on the calcium machinery and avian sarcoma virus Gag, whose release is not, will be used to identify the key determinants. This approach will be complemented by mutational analysis of specific residues in the identified domains. Functional contributions of the recruited proteins in model cells (e.g., HeLa), T cells and macrophages will be investigated through siRNA-mediated depletion and replacement studies. Physical associations or proximity will be assessed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, immunoprecipitation, immuno-electron microscopy and biotinylation assays. Direct interactions will be checked using protein- protein interaction assays. These studies will define the mechanism underlying viral exploitation of the ESCRT cellular machinery and provide new strategies for anti-viral drug development by identifying required cellular proteins and events that are potential targets for pharmaceutical interventions.
Although HIV-1 is still the cause of the world-wide AIDS pandemic and no vaccine is available, infection is no longer a death sentence thanks to interventions targeted at viral gene products, which are now being used as a functional cure approach. Nevertheless, major barriers to a cure persist because drug-resistant variants emerge rapidly. Discovery of new anti-viral targets is thus a continuing and critical priority. A strategy that should permit us to circumvent the lattr problem is development of anti-viral agents that target cellular proteins such as Tsg101 and endocytic machinery factors that play key roles in virus production.
|Watanabe, Susan M; Medina, Gisselle N; Eastep, Gunnar N et al. (2018) The matrix domain of the Gag protein from avian sarcoma virus contains a PI(4,5)P2-binding site that targets Gag to the cell periphery. J Biol Chem 293:18841-18853|
|Tien, ChihFeng; Huang, Liangqun; Watanabe, Susan M et al. (2018) Context-dependent autoprocessing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease precursors. PLoS One 13:e0191372|
|Vlach, Jiri; Eastep, Gunnar N; Ghanam, Ruba H et al. (2018) Structural basis for targeting avian sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein to the plasma membrane for virus assembly. J Biol Chem 293:18828-18840|
|Strickland, Madeleine; Ehrlich, Lorna S; Watanabe, Susan et al. (2017) Tsg101 chaperone function revealed by HIV-1 assembly inhibitors. Nat Commun 8:1391|
|Watanabe, Susan M; Simon, Viviana; Durham, Natasha D et al. (2016) The HIV-1 late domain-2 S40A polymorphism in antiretroviral (or ART)-exposed individuals influences protease inhibitor susceptibility. Retrovirology 13:64|
|Ehrlich, Lorna S; Medina, Gisselle N; Photiadis, Sara et al. (2014) Tsg101 regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca(2+) signaling for HIV-1 Gag assembly. Front Microbiol 5:234|
|Watanabe, Susan M; Chen, Min-Huei; Khan, Mahfuz et al. (2013) The S40 residue in HIV-1 Gag p6 impacts local and distal budding determinants, revealing additional late domain activities. Retrovirology 10:143|
|Ehrlich, Lorna S; Carter, Carol A (2012) HIV Assembly and Budding: Ca(2+) Signaling and Non-ESCRT Proteins Set the Stage. Mol Biol Int 2012:851670|
|Ehrlich, Lorna S; Medina, Gisselle N; Carter, Carol A (2011) Sprouty2 regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca2+ signaling and HIV-1 Gag release. J Mol Biol 410:716-25|
|Ehrlich, Lorna S; Medina, Gisselle N; Carter, Carol A (2011) ESCRT machinery potentiates HIV-1 utilization of the PI(4,5)P(2)-PLC-IP3R-Ca(2+) signaling cascade. J Mol Biol 413:347-58|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 11 publications