The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion disorder. It is associated with significant phenotypic and neuropsychiatric pathology, both of which are widely variable. In the majority of affected individuals, the deletion occurs de novo as a result of aberrant recombination mediated by four large chromosome 22-specific low copy repeats (LCRA, -B, -C and -D) in 22q11. Their size and the presence of numerous segments with near-identical sequence render chromosome specific LCRs as substrates for non- allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). The results of NAHR are numerous genomic disorders, including the 22q11DS. LCR22s are extremely difficult to reliably map and sequence because of their structural characteristics. Currently, an accurate reference sequence for the region does not exist. Also, LCR22s are recalcitrant to short read sequencing such that the level of their polymorphism and variability in the general population is unknown. However, optical mapping of the region with BioNano Genomics? Irys technology overcomes this difficulty. In fact, our preliminary BioNano optical mapping data suggests a complex organization of a duplicated 160kb module within LCRA and LCRD that includes copy number and orientation differences. Further, a common inversion polymorphism in the LCRC to LCRD region has been identified with the aid of fiber- FISH. The inversion appears to dramatically increase the risk for deletion. Remarkably, our preliminary data suggests this polymorphic inversion is absent in African Americans (AAs), which would finally explain the relative deficit of AAs in our CHOP- based 22q11DS cohort. In this proposed study, we will use the innovative BioNano optical mapping technology to determine the frequency of these 22q11.2 polymorphisms in the general population and determine the role they play in facilitating NAHR leading to the deletion. In order to investigate the basis of these observations we propose to determine the prevalence of the LCRC-D inversion in several different populations (CEU, African, and African American subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project; local African Americans and 22q11DS trios). We will also analyze in detail the LCR22-containing regions associated with 22q11DS in these same populations to determine their structure and variation. The breakpoints for the inversion polymorphism will be defined and a PCR assay to screen for it as a risk factor for NAHR will be developed. Finally, we propose to analyze and PCR amplify the breakpoint of the typical 3Mb 22q11.2 deletion guided by BioNano optical maps derived from probands in the 22q11DS trios. By leveraging the increased sensitivity afforded by long single molecule optical mapping on nanochannel arrays coupled with 10X Genomics whole- genome sequence and molecular combing, this proposal will elucidate the previously unmapped structure and variation of the LCR22s and surrounding regions. The data and maps generated herein will provide access to many other difficult to map and sequence genomic regions.
Using BioNano optical mapping technology we are taking a novel approach to understand the structure and organization of the 22q11.2 region deleted in 22q11.2DS, a significant pediatric disorder. We will examine the prevalence and role of various inversion polymorphisms and copy number variants as risk factors for the deletion in several populations (CEU, African and African American) including parent/ affected child trios of 22q11DS subjects. Further, we will identify the breakpoints of the inversion(s) and the deletion in order to develop PCR-based assays to potentially pre-conceptually screen individuals to assess deletion risk and to determine the prevalence and similarity of specific deletion types in affected individuals.