Encoding of text during reading differs fundamentally from the encoding of speech in that reading requires the active selection for processing of to-be-recognized words from a spatially ordered set of visual symbols. Two forms of visual selection are distinguished in the literature. Overt selection, which is accomplished by directing the eyes to a selected word of text and by fixating it for a brief interval, and covert selection, which controls the processing of words during a fixation. Models of eye movement control during reading seek to explain how these two types of selection are accomplished and coordinated. To advance theoretical developments in the field, Dr. Inhoff examines the selection-for-fixation and the selection-for-processing of words that are spatially adjacent to a fixated word and of previously read nonadjacent words. Two recently developed models of oculomotor control, that are predicated on substantially different selection assumptions, are used to formulate discriminating predictions for the selection of spatially adjacent (parafoveally visible) words; one of the models also provides working hypotheses for the selection of previously read words. Extensions of an established eye-movement-contingent display change paradigm are used to manipulate the temporal and spatial availability of linguistic information to the right and left of a selected target word upon its fixation and to control the allocation of attention during a fixation. A novel paradigm, involving the eyemovement-contingent presentation of spoken words, is used to elicit long-range eye movements to previously read words. Effects of these manipulations on the temporal and spatial pattern of ensuing eye movements are then used to delineate the nature and coordination of the two types of selection. Results of the proposed work should continue to advance extant theoretical conceptions of eye movement control during skilled reading, and it may advance our understanding of some reading disabilities that are related to poor overt and covert selection. It should also have ramifications beyond the domain of reading, as coordination of covert and overt selection may be part and parcel of effective visual selection in general.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Research Project (R01)
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Biobehavioral and Behavioral Processes 3 (BBBP)
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Mccardle, Peggy D
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State University of NY, Binghamton
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W (2010) The influence of visual contrast and case changes on parafoveal preview benefits during reading. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 63:805-17
Inhoff, Albrecht W; Greenberg, Seth N; Solomon, Matthew et al. (2009) Word integration and regression programming during reading: a test of the E-Z reader 10 model. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 35:1571-84
Wang, Chin-An; Inhoff, Albrecht W; Radach, Ralph (2009) Is attention confined to one word at a time? The spatial distribution of parafoveal preview benefits during reading. Atten Percept Psychophys 71:1487-94
Inhoff, Albrecht W; Starr, Matthew S; Solomon, Matthew et al. (2008) Eye movements during the reading of compound words and the influence of lexeme meaning. Mem Cognit 36:675-87
Inhoff, Albrecht W; Solomon, Matthew S; Seymour, Bradley A et al. (2008) Eye position changes during reading fixations are spatially selective. Vision Res 48:1027-39
Eiter, Brianna M; Inhoff, Albrecht W (2008) Visual word recognition is accompanied by covert articulation: evidence for a speech-like phonological representation. Psychol Res 72:666-74
Weger, Ulrich W; Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D et al. (2007) Things are sounding up: affective influences on auditory tone perception. Psychon Bull Rev 14:517-21
Weger, Ulrich W; Inhoff, Albrecht W (2007) Long-range regressions to previously read words are guided by spatial and verbal memory. Mem Cognit 35:1293-306
Greenberg, Seth N; Inhoff, Albrecht W; Weger, Ulrich W (2006) The impact of letter detection on eye movement patterns during reading: Reconsidering lexical analysis in connected text as a function of task. Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester) 59:987-95
Weger, Ulrich W; Inhoff, Albrecht W (2006) Semantic inhibition of return is the exception rather than the rule. Percept Psychophys 68:244-53

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