This application is to conduct secondary analyses of existing data. These analyses will focus on factors that promote change and stability in resilience to maltreatment. The application has 5 aims: (1) To develop developmentally-sensitive and multidimensional models of resilience and to estimate the prevalence and stability of resilience over a 3-year period; (2) to trace trajectories of mental health problems, academic achievement, and peer relations among maltreated children (3) to identify individual, family, and extra- familial factors that predict change in these trajectories (4) to test hypotheses about the processes that explain continuity versus change in resilience to maltreatment (5) to test the potentially different effects of neglect, and physical, emotional, and sexual abuse on children's cognitive achievement and mental health. Currently, interventions that are intended to promote short- or long-term improvements in maltreated children's functioning are hampered by a lack of evidence demonstrating why some children maintain consistently positive functioning while others do not, whether efforts to promote positive outcomes in one domain will generalize to other domains, and how interventions must be tailored to suit the needs of children who experience different forms of abuse or neglect. The proposed research will involve over 3000 school- age children who have participated in 4 waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). NSCAW is a nationally-representative sample of children who were selected from child protective service rolls. Children ranged in age from 6-14 years at the baseline assessment and were followed up at 12, 18, and 36 months post-baseline. Strengths of the application include its cost-effectiveness, the size and representative ness of the sample, low attrition rates over multiple waves of data collection, and the developmental nature of research questions that look at how changes in children's life circumstances influence changes in children's mental health, academic functioning, and peer relations over time.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Psychosocial Development, Risk and Prevention Study Section (PDRP)
Program Officer
Maholmes, Valerie
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University of Pennsylvania
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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Jaffee, Sara R; Van Hulle, Carol; Rodgers, Joseph L (2011) Effects of nonmaternal care in the first 3 years on children's academic skills and behavioral functioning in childhood and early adolescence: a sibling comparison study. Child Dev 82:1076-91
Jaffee, Sara R; Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn (2011) Effects of chronic maltreatment and maltreatment timing on children's behavior and cognitive abilities. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:184-94
Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R (2010) Sex differences in childhood sexual abuse characteristics and victims' emotional and behavioral problems: findings from a national sample of youth. Child Abuse Negl 34:429-37
Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C; Jaffee, Sara R (2009) Posttraumatic stress symptoms and trajectories in child sexual abuse victims: an analysis of sex differences using the national survey of child and adolescent well-being. J Abnorm Child Psychol 37:727-37
Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R et al. (2008) Research review: DSM-V conduct disorder: research needs for an evidence base. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49:3-33
Jaffee, Sara R; Price, Thomas S (2008) Genotype-environment correlations: implications for determining the relationship between environmental exposures and psychiatric illness. Psychiatry 7:496-499
Price, Thomas S; Jaffee, Sara R (2008) Effects of the family environment: gene-environment interaction and passive gene-environment correlation. Dev Psychol 44:305-15
Jaffee, Sara R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E et al. (2007) Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: a cumulative stressors model. Child Abuse Negl 31:231-53
Jaffee, Sara R (2007) Sensitive, stimulating caregiving predicts cognitive and behavioral resilience in neurodevelopmentally at-risk infants. Dev Psychopathol 19:631-47
Jaffee, S R; Price, T S (2007) Gene-environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Mol Psychiatry 12:432-42