When insufficient oxygen (O2) is supplied to the body, the resultant O2 deficit causes a deficit in energy production. This deficit may cause energy stores, such as creatine phosphate, to be used because anaerobic metabolism is too inefficient to repair the deficit. When O2 is again present in sufficient supply, excess O2 uptake is used to replenish energy stores to their original level. The long term objectives of this research are to quantify regional contributions to whole body O2 deficit/excess and to distinguish obligatory energy usage during hypoxia from facultative or temporarily dispensable activities in these regions.
Specific Aim No. 1 is to compare O2 deficit/excess in hindlimb (HL) skeletal muscle of anesthetized dogs when O2 uptake is increased by uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation or by twitch contractions during and after hypoxia. Other experiments will measure the HL O2 deficit/excess resulting from hypoxia after the muscle O2 demand has been lowered with ouabain. These experiments will show whether excess O2 is more relatd to size of O2 deficit or to the energy imbalance.
Specific Aim No. 2 will test whether hypoxia decreases periodic isometric tension development in an in situ autoperfused muscle and whether any decrement is reflected as a greater excess O2 uptake in recovery. Sustained tetanic stimulation will deplete high-energy phosphate to near exhaustion for the same purpose in other experiments.
Specific Aim No. 3 will seek neurohumoral factors that may alter energy demand of skeletal muscle when the whole body is hypoxic by perfusing only the muscle with oxygenated blood. Discovered factors will be identified by denervation and by use of inhibitors or blockers.
Specific Aim No. 4 will utilize an in situ autoperfused gut loop in a series of experiments like dose described for muscle and will relate the results to guts's contribution to whole body O2 deficit/excess. Of special interest will be the reasons for gut's apparent non-repayment of progressively increased O2 deficit. Catecholamine calorigenesis, which is restricted to non-muscle regions, may be of particular importance in this regard. Between them, gut and muscle account for over half of the total resting O2 uptake. They are, therefore, important contributors to the body's energy economy in hypoxia. The proposed experiments will provide new insight into the nature of """"""""O2 debt"""""""" whether incurred by exercise or by hypoxia.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Research Project (R01)
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Experimental Cardiovascular Sciences Study Section (ECS)
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University of Alabama Birmingham
School of Medicine & Dentistry
United States
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Curtis, S E; Vallet, B; Winn, M J et al. (1995) Role of the vascular endothelium in O2 extraction during progressive ischemia in canine skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 79:1351-60
King-Vanvlack, C E; Curtis, S E; Mewburn, J D et al. (1995) Role of endothelial factors in active hyperemic responses in contracting canine muscle. J Appl Physiol 79:107-12
Vallet, B; Lund, N; Curtis, S E et al. (1994) Gut and muscle tissue PO2 in endotoxemic dogs during shock and resuscitation. J Appl Physiol 76:793-800
Cain, S M (1994) Oxygen delivery and intentional hemodilution. Adv Exp Med Biol 361:271-8
Cain, S M; Curtis, S E; Vallet, B et al. (1994) Resuscitation of dogs from endotoxic shock by continuous dextran infusion with and without perflubron added. Adv Exp Med Biol 345:235-42
Winn, M J; Vallet, B; Curtis, S E et al. (1994) Critical oxygen extraction in dog hindlimb after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase systems. Adv Exp Med Biol 361:295-301
King, C E; Melinyshyn, M J; Mewburn, J D et al. (1994) Canine hindlimb blood flow and O2 uptake after inhibition of EDRF/NO synthesis. J Appl Physiol 76:1166-71
Vallet, B; Winn, M J; Asante, N K et al. (1994) Influence of oxygen on endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide and K(+)-dependent regulation of vascular tone. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 24:595-602
Vallet, B; Curtis, S E; Winn, M J et al. (1994) Hypoxic vasodilation does not require nitric oxide (EDRF/NO) synthesis. J Appl Physiol 76:1256-61
King, C E; Curtis, S E; Winn, M J et al. (1994) The role of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in the whole body and hindlimb vascular responses during hypoxic hypoxia. Adv Exp Med Biol 361:285-93

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