The objective of this application is to investigate the predictive value of using measures of cholesterol homeostasis to identify individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to established risk factors.
The specific aims are to 1) quantify circulating indicators of cholesterol homeostasis [levels of phytosterols and cholestanol (surrogate measures of cholesterol absorption) and cholesterol precursors (surrogate measures of cholesterol synthetic rates)] in plasma samples from Framingham Offspring Study participants diagnosed with established CVD and/or >50% carotid stenosis (N=165) not taking lipid-lowering medication and control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension and smoking status (n=330); 2) evaluate the validity of using indicators of cholesterol homeostasis to predict CVD risk in the Framingham Offspring Study-Cycle 6 participants by a) establishing adult normal ranges for circulating levels of phytosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol precursor (N=3378), b) defining the relationship between phytosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol precursor levels, and lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in plasma, c) defining the relationship between phytosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol precursor levels and selected dietary intake data (energy, protein, fat, saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, fiber and antioxidant supplements) and d) determining the relationship between phytosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol precursor levels and selected genotype data related to CVD risk (gene loci of apo E, apo A-IV, scavenger receptor class B type 1 [SRB1], and ATP-binding cassette [ABC] G5 and ABCG8 transporters); and 3) monitor clinical events in the Framingham Offspring Study cohort throughout a 10-year period (1995-2005) and relate these data to the phytosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol precursor levels. Measures of cholesterol homeostasis will be quantified first in subjects identified in specific aim #1 and then the balance of subjects identified in specific aim #2, achievable now due to the development of a gas chromatographic method using a single plasma sample. These data will be assessed relative to dietary, biochemical and genotype data currently available for the cohort. The results of the proposed work will define the relationship between markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, and CVD outcomes; establish reference values for measures of cholesterol absorption and synthesis; and assess the predictive value of these measures to identify high risk individuals relative to established risk factors.
|Griffin, John D; Lichtenstein, Alice H (2013) Dietary Cholesterol and Plasma Lipoprotein Profiles: Randomized-Controlled Trials. Curr Nutr Rep 2:274-282|
|Matthan, Nirupa R; Zhu, Lei; Pencina, Michael et al. (2013) Sex-specific differences in the predictive value of cholesterol homeostasis markers and 10-year cardiovascular disease event rate in Framingham Offspring Study participants. J Am Heart Assoc 2:e005066|
|Matthan, Nirupa R; Pencina, Michael; LaRocque, Jane M et al. (2009) Alterations in cholesterol absorption/synthesis markers characterize Framingham offspring study participants with CHD. J Lipid Res 50:1927-35|