The goal of this revised application is to study the relationships between intracellular Ca (Cai) dynamics and the mechanisms of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and defibrillation. In the present funding period, we discovered that Cai dynamics and spontaneous diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release are important to the initial defibrillation success or failure. Whether or not Cai dynamics play a role in the recurrent spontaneous VF after initial successful defibrillation remains unclear. Spontaneous VF episodes are known to occur frequently during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in patients with VF storms. Preliminary studies from the laboratory of SR Wayne Chen suggested that store overload induced Ca release (SOICR) is an important mechanism of spontaneous SR Ca release. They also found that carvedilol and its analog (VK-II-36) can effectively reduce the sensitivity of type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) to luminal Ca and suppress SR Ca release in rat ventricular myocytes. These findings suggest that inhibition of SOICR may provide a novel approach to improve defibrillation efficacy and prevent postshock spontaneous VF. However, SOICR may not be the only mechanism for postshock arrhythmias. Our preliminary studies showed that late phase 3 EAD may also play a role in postshock arrhythmias in failing and ischemic hearts. The late phase 3 EAD occurs because of the coexistence of shortened action potential duration (APD) and persistently elevated Cai. This Cai elevation is induced by Ca induced Ca release, not SOICR. If late phase 3 EAD is an important mechanism for postshock arrhythmias, then SOICR inhibition alone may not achieve antiarrhythmic effects in the postshock period. We hypothesize that (1) Spontaneous (non-voltage gated) SR Ca release and late phase 3 EAD are both important mechanisms for the development of the postshock arrhythmias and (2) Inhibition of SOICR can improve initial efficacy of ventricular defibrillation and prevent recurrent SVF after successful defibrillation attempts. We will perform dual optical mapping of Cai and membrane potential (Vm) on rabbit ventricular endocardium to document SOICR-induced delayed after depolarization in normal ventricles and in ischemic ventricles. We will also study the effects of VK-II-36, a SOICR inhibitor, on postshock arrhythmias. These studies will provide us new insights into the mechanisms of VF and defibrillation, and help test the hypothesis that inhibition of SOICR is a novel approach to arrhythmia control.
To perform dual optical mapping of Cai and membrane potential (Vm) on rabbit ventricular endocardium to document late phase 3 EAD and SOICR-induced DADs in ventricles with global ischemia. We will also study the effects of VK-II-36 on the postshock arrhythmias in these preparations. Recurrent ventricular fibrillation occurs frequently during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We plan to study the importance of intracellular calcium dynamics in the mechanisms of recurrent fibrillation. These studies have significant relevance to sudden cardiac death, which is a major public health problem of this country.
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