Although an age-related decline in aerobic capacity is well documented, the impact of physical activity, body fat, and genetic variation on the rate of change is not well understood. In addition, little is known about how rate of change in aerobic capacity during early and middle adulthood affects the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors or the incidence of subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) related end-points. We propose to address these issues by conducting an ancillary study in conjunction with the Year 20 CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) examination, which is scheduled to take place beginning in June, 2005. We anticipate that approximately 3,650 (75%) of the surviving members of the initial cohort of African American and white men and women will return for the Year 20 exam, at which point they will be 38-50 years old. The overall goal of the proposed ancillary study is to understand the complex, longitudinal relations between physical fitness, physical activity, body mass and composition and fat distribution, and genetic factors and their independent or interactive effects on the development of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and sub-clinical CVD. To accomplish this goal, we propose to measure, on all Year 20 CARDIA participants: 1. Aerobic capacity, by means of a symptom-limited graded exercise treadmill test, using the same protocol as that used in CARDIA at the Year 0 and Year 7 exams; 2. Body composition and fat distribution, using a whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometery (DEXA) scan; 3. Physical activity, using 7 days of accelerometer recordings; and 4. DNA sequence variants in selected candidate genes associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, components of the metabolic syndrome, and response to regular exercise, using stored DNA. Data from this ancillary study will be combined with core CARDIA examination data to address the following aims: a. Examination of the contribution of body mass and composition, fat distribution, objectively measured physical activity and specific genetic polymorphisms to the variance in Year 20 aerobic capacity and in age-related decline in aerobic capacity over a 20-year time period from young adulthood to mid-life, stratifying by race and gender. b. Longitudinal examination of the effect of aerobic capacity on changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors and on the incidence of CVD-related endpoints (e.g. hypertension, metabolic syndrome, subclinical disease [e.g. coronary artery calcium]). Data from this study should provide information that will help us more deeply understand the interrelationships of cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and CVD-related risk factors and endpoints, and may provide the basis for more extensive evidence-based recommendations on the role of fitness in cardiovascular health.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
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Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases Study Section (ECD)
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Wei, Gina
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Kaiser Foundation Research Institute
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Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Whitaker, Kara M; Duprez, Daniel et al. (2018) Clinical importance of non-participation in a maximal graded exercise test on risk of non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: CARDIA study. Prev Med 106:137-144
Whitaker, Kara M; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Jacobs Jr, David R et al. (2018) Comparison of Two Generations of ActiGraph Accelerometers: The CARDIA Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 50:1333-1340
Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Sidney, Stephen; Jacobs Jr, David R et al. (2018) Ten-Year Changes in Accelerometer-Based Physical Activity and Sedentary Time During Midlife: The CARDIA Study. Am J Epidemiol 187:2145-2150
Liem, Robert I; Chan, Cheeling; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T et al. (2017) Association among sickle cell trait, fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors in CARDIA. Blood 129:723-728
Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Carnethon, Mercedes R et al. (2017) Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Adiposity: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations in CARDIA. Am J Prev Med 53:764-771
Benck, Lillian R; Cuttica, Michael J; Colangelo, Laura A et al. (2017) Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Lung Health from Young Adulthood to Middle Age. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 195:1236-1243
Zhu, Na; Jacobs Jr, David R; Schreiner, Pamela J et al. (2015) Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume and white matter integrity: The CARDIA Study. Neurology 84:2347-53
Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; Reis, Jared P et al. (2015) Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between objectively measured sedentary time and metabolic disease: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Diabetes Care 38:1835-43
Sarzynski, Mark A; Schuna Jr, John M; Carnethon, Mercedes R et al. (2015) Association of Fitness With Incident Dyslipidemias Over 25 Years in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Am J Prev Med 49:745-752
Zhu, Na; Jacobs Jr, David R; Schreiner, Pamela J et al. (2014) Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age: the CARDIA study. Neurology 82:1339-46

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