Calcific aortic valve disease is a growing health problem in our aging population. To overcome our limited understanding in the disease process and to develop therapeutic strategies beyond valve replacement, better animal models are critically needed. To date, most animal models have focused on hyperlipidemia-induced vascular inflammation. Our research laboratory focuses on the cytokine-like protein S100A12, which is not present in mice. The absence of S100A12 in mice could be one reason for an overall reduced amount of vascular inflammation seen in normolipidemic mice. We now developed a new humanized transgenic mouse with expression of human S100/calgranulins (S100A12, S100A8 and S100A9) in tissues that normally express these proteins by using the human S100 gene cluster with its endogenous regulatory elements. These mice are termed hBAC-S100 since a bacterial artificial chromosome was used to generate this model. These mice have a pro-inflammatory milieu and develop aortic valve disease with micro-calcification in a lipid neutral manner.
In AIM 1 we would like to examine systemic and local inflammatory state in transgenic hBAC-S100 mice and study mechanisms by which S100/Calgranulins induce calcification of the aortic valve.
In AIM 2 we would like to use the humanized S100/calgranulin mouse to develop new models of advanced calcific aortic valve disease by exposing these mice to additional vascular stressors, like hyperlipidemia and chronic kidney disease. It is our hypothesis that human S100A12 is a disease-modifying factor that accelerates calcific aortic valve disease in metabolically challenged mice by its pro-apoptotic effects on stressed cells. In our previous work we demonstrated vastly accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in transgenic mice with expression of human S100A12 targeted to the vascular smooth muscle and exposed to hyperlipidemia or chronic kidney disease.
In AIM 3 we would like to test the hypothesis that limiting S100/calgranulin induced chronic inflammation by either preventing activation of its receptor RAGE or by impaired downstream signaling of the S100/RAGE axis will attenuate the progression of calcific aortic valve disease in vivo. Our research will contribute to a better understanding of the relationship of systemic and local aortic valve inflammation. Delineating the mechanisms by which S100/calgranulin regulates its effect on aortic valve remodeling will identify those steps that should be targeted for therapy. Our experiments will identify whether the S100/calgranulins/RAGE axis is a sufficient therapeutic target for aortic valve disease.

Public Health Relevance

We are interested to study the role of chronic inflammation as a cause for the development and progression of aortic valve disease, a common heart disease in our aging population for which we currently have no specific therapies beyond surgical valve replacement. Our laboratory has developed new genetically engineered mice that make human S100A12 protein, which is known to enhance inflammation and is strongly associated with human heart and blood vessel diseases. The role of S100 proteins in mediating aortic valve disease has not been studied in man or mice, because mice lack the gene for S100 proteins.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZHL1)
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Evans, Frank
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University of Chicago
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Narang, Nikhil; Lang, Roberto M; Liarski, Vladimir M et al. (2017) Aortic Valve Replacement for Moderate Aortic Stenosis with Severe Calcification and Left Ventricualr Dysfunction-A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Front Cardiovasc Med 4:14
Chellan, Bijoy; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S et al. (2016) Enzymatically Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein Promotes Foam Cell Formation in Smooth Muscle Cells via Macropinocytosis and Enhances Receptor-Mediated Uptake of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 36:1101-13
Oesterle, Adam; Bowman, Marion A Hofmann (2015) S100A12 and the S100/Calgranulins: Emerging Biomarkers for Atherosclerosis and Possibly Therapeutic Targets. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 35:2496-507
Chellan, Bijoy; Yan, Ling; Sontag, Timothy J et al. (2014) IL-22 is induced by S100/calgranulin and impairs cholesterol efflux in macrophages by downregulating ABCG1. J Lipid Res 55:443-54
Yan, Ling; Bowman, Marion A Hofmann (2014) Chronic sustained inflammation links to left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic valve sclerosis: a new link between S100/RAGE and FGF23. Inflamm Cell Signal 1:
Yutzey, Katherine E; Demer, Linda L; Body, Simon C et al. (2014) Calcific aortic valve disease: a consensus summary from the Alliance of Investigators on Calcific Aortic Valve Disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 34:2387-93
Yan, Ling; Mathew, Liby; Chellan, Bijoy et al. (2014) S100/Calgranulin-mediated inflammation accelerates left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic valve sclerosis in chronic kidney disease in a receptor for advanced glycation end products-dependent manner. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 34:1399-411
Yan, Ling; Bjork, Per; Butuc, Radu et al. (2013) Beneficial effects of quinoline-3-carboxamide (ABR-215757) on atherosclerotic plaque morphology in S100A12 transgenic ApoE null mice. Atherosclerosis 228:69-79
Scheiber-Camoretti, Ricardo; Mehrotra, Amit; Yan, Ling et al. (2013) Elevated S100A12 and sRAGE are associated with increased length of hospitalization after non-urgent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Am J Cardiovasc Dis 3:85-90
Bowman, Marion A Hofmann; Schmidt, Ann Marie (2013) The next generation of RAGE modulators: implications for soluble RAGE therapies in vascular inflammation. J Mol Med (Berl) 91:1329-31

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