The broad objective of the current application is to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of preclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (PDD) (Stage B heart failure) in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to develop novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the progression to symptomatic heart failure (Stage C heart failure). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that the number of Americans with DM has grown to 30 million people, or 9.3% of the U.S. population, with 90% to 95% of cases being type 2 DM. This application will focus only on type 2 DM. DM is strongly associated with the development of heart failure (HF) which is a major cause of death. We have previously reported that between 23-54% of DM patients have preclinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD) or Stage B heart failure determined by echo Doppler. More importantly, we determined that diastolic dysfunction was associated with increased risk of the subsequent development of HF after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, coronary disease and echo parameters (HR=1.67, 95% CI=1.27-2.23; p<0.001). The cumulative probability of development of HF for DM patients with PDD was 37% at 5 years compared to 17% at 5 years for DM patients without diastolic dysfunction (P<0.001). Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is the second messenger of the natriuretic peptide system and the nitric oxide system. cGMP plays an important role in the preservation of myocardial, vascular and renal function. Disruption of this signal transduction process may contribute to the development of cardiorenal dysfunction. Preclinical studies and the applicant's preliminary clinical data suggest that there is an impaired cGMP generation in response to the activation of the endogenous natriuretic peptides (NPs) in DM. The mechanism of impaired cGMP generation in DM to endogenous NPs is not well defined and may be due to the lack of biologically active NPs, increased NPs degradation or down regulation of NP receptors. Neprilysin is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that cleaves peptides at the amino side of hydrophobic residues and inactivates several peptide hormones, including the NPs. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) is a new class of therapeutic agents that combines neprilysin and angiotensin receptor inhibitor, potentiates the cGMP system and is approved for the management of Stage C systolic HF. However, the cardiorenal renal action of ARNI in human DM with and without PDD (Stage B HF) has not been well defined. We have previously demonstrated that neprilysin inhibition in experimental HF improves cardio-renal function associated with increasing endogenous NPs. Hence, ARNI may be used as a tool to provide insight into the mechanism of impaired cGMP generation in DM by inhibition of endogenous NPs degradation. Building on our know-how in protein biology, we have succeeded in creating a bivalent chimeric peptide that can activate 2 distinct molecular signaling pathways: CRRL 094 is a unique peptide that combines the biological properties of natriuretic peptide and Insulin, resulting in the activation of cGMP and the secretion of insulin. This novel peptide may be beneficial in DM with PDD to control hyperglycemia and the cardiorenal protective actions of the NPs to prevent the development of stage C HF.
Our Specific Aims are as follows:
Specific Aim 1 : To perform high definition phenotyping of DM with and without PDD, defining the differential cardiorenal response to acute saline volume expansion. Hypothesis: DM with PDD has greater impaired cGMP and cardiorenal response to acute volume expansion Specific Aim 2: To determine the effects of exogenous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or neprilysin inhibition with ARNI (LCZ 696) on the cardiorenal and humoral response to acute saline volume expansion in DM with and without PDD. Hypothesis: DM with PDD has an attenuated response to ARNI but preserved response to exogenous BNP.
Specific Aim 3 : To define in an experimental model of type 2 Diabetic cardiomyopathy, the biological and potential therapeutic actions of a novel bivalent chimeric insulin secreting natriuretic peptide, CRRL 094 Hypothesis: The bivalent chimeric peptide will control hyperglycemia and have beneficial cardiorenal actions beyond insulin alone or insulin + ARNI. To address these objectives related to PDD with DM, we will pursue translational high definition physiological human and animal studies taking advantage of the extensive clinical facilities, patient populations, the NIH funded Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCaTS) at the Mayo Clinic and also the cardiorenal research laboratory, which makes our proposed research highly feasible, innovative and of significant clinical importance.

Public Health Relevance

A recent report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, based on data from 2012, revealed that the number of Americans with diabetes mellitus (DM) has grown to about 30 million people, or roughly 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, with 90% to 95% of cases being type 2 diabetes mellitus. The current application will focus only on type 2 diabetes. The Framingham Heart Study revealed that the risk of heart failure is up to 5 times higher in diabetics than non-diabetics, when controlling for other risk factors. Diastolic dysfunction is an early functional abnormality of the heart in DM and we have previously reported that 23-54% of DM patients have preclinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD) or Stage B heart failure. Diabetic patients with PDD have a 5-year mortality rate of 30.8% compared to 12.1% for diabetic patients with no diastolic dysfunction. While the current therapies for DM are effective in lowering blood glucose, there is, currently, no proven therapy to prevent or regress the development of PDD in DM (stage B HF) so as to enhance or preserve cardiac function and prevent the development of symptomatic (stage C) HF. The impact of our proposed studies is high, as they will advance our knowledge of the integrated cardiorenal and humoral physiology in patients with type 2 DM and PDD and test novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the progression to symptomatic heart failure (Stage C heart failure).

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Clinical and Integrative Cardiovascular Sciences Study Section (CICS)
Program Officer
Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Mayo Clinic, Rochester
United States
Zip Code
Wan, Siu-Hin; Slusser, Joshua P; Hodge, David O et al. (2018) The Vascular-Renal Connection in Patients Hospitalized With Hypertensive Crisis: A Population-Based Study. Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2:148-154