Recent evidence from epidemiological studies and dietary intervention studies suggest that consumption of added sugar/sugar-sweetened beverage increases risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome and gout. As a result, soda consumption has decreased in this country, and new dietary guidelines and FDA food labeling requirements have been enacted to promote greater reductions in added sugar consumption. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the effect of other sugar-containing foods, particularly those of 100% fruit juice, that have led to public confusion about healthier options for soda, and impede progress in implementing public health policies that will promote greater reductions in sugar consumption. The amount of sugar in fruit juice is comparable to the amount in soda. Because of this, some experts believe that the effects of consuming fruit juice are as detrimental, or even worse, than those of soda. However, in contrast to soda, fruit juice contains micronutrients and bioactives that may mitigate the effects of sugar and promote health. Therefore, some scientist believe that fruit juice is a healthier choice than soda. The epidemiological evidence is conflicting, and the results from the limited number of clinical dietary intervention studies that have directly compared the metabolic effects of consuming fruit juice with sugar-sweetened beverage are inconclusive. The objectives of this proposal are to address the gap in knowledge regarding the metabolic effects of consuming orange juice compared with sugar-sweetened beverage. We propose to compare the weight-independent effects of consuming 25% energy requirement as carbohydrate from orange juice or sucrose-sweetened beverages (SBB) for 4 weeks on risk factors and metabolic processes associated with the development of CVD and T2D in normal weight and overweight men and women. We also propose to measure urinary levels of the metabolites and catabolites of the two main flavanones in orange juice and relate these levels to changes in the risk factors and metabolic processes. We hypothesize that consumption of orange juice will have less detrimental effects than SSB on circulating concentrations of lipid/lipoprotein risk factors and uric acid, and on hepatic conversion of sugar to fat (de novo lipogenesis) and hepatic fat accumulation. Weight-maintaining, low sugar diets that contain 50% energy as complex carbohydrate will be provided during the 2-week baseline period, and matched diets that contain 25% energy as complex carbohydrate and 25% energy as carbohydrate from orange juice or sucrose-SB will be provided during the 4-week intervention period. Experimental procedures will be conducted during baseline and during the final 2 weeks of study. The results from this study, whether supportive or unsupportive of our hypotheses, will assist consumers in making informed beverage choices and aid efforts to establish evidence- based public health policy aimed at slowing the epidemics of CVD and T2D.
There are gaps in knowledge about the health effects of drinking 100% fruit juice that have led to disagreement among scientists and public confusion. Therefore the purpose of this proposal is to compare the effects of consuming 100% orange juice or sucrose-sweetened beverages on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The results from this study will assist the consumer in making informed beverage choices and also aid the efforts to establish evidence-based public health policy aimed at slowing the epidemics of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.