The normal blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythm is essential to human health, as morning BP surge is associated with increased incidence of life-threatening cardiovascular events. Moreover, disruption of BP circadian rhythm, which occurs in up to 75% of diabetic patients, is emerging as an index for future target organ injury and poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, the mechanism by which BP circadian rhythm is disrupted in diabetes is largely unknown, and an effective strategy to restore the disrupted BP circadian rhythm in diabetes has not yet been identified. Our preliminary studies found that by limiting the time of food available to the active period (ATRF) provided striking protection of the diabetic db/db mice from the severe disruption of BP circadian rhythm. Moreover, BMAL1, an obligatory clock gene, is required for and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation mimics the protection of BP circadian rhythm by ATRF. These intriguing findings suggest that ATRF can serve as a novel strategy to promote normal BP circadian rhythms, thus significantly improving the cardiovascular prognosis of diabetic patients. The current proposal will examine this new exciting possibility by testing the specific hypothesis that active time- restricted feeding (ATRF) or GLP-1 activation restores normal smooth muscle and renal BMAL1 and sympathetic oscillations thus protects diabetic mice from disruptions of blood pressure circadian rhythm. The three specific aims are 1). Determine the mechanism by which BMAL1 is dysregulated in diabetes and restored by ATRF. 2). Test the hypothesis that ATRF protects BP circadian rhythm via smooth muscle and renal BMAL1 in diabetes. 3). Define ATRF as a novel chrononutritional therapy and targeting GLP-1 as a new pharmacological therapy to protect BP circadian rhythm in diabetes. We will monitor the circadian rhythms of BP, food intake, BMAL1 regulation, vascular smooth muscle function and signaling, renal function, and sympathetic regulation under ad libitum and ATRF feeding regimens. The various mouse models will be used are diabetic db/db mice, db/db-per2Luc mice, high-fat diet fed mice, smooth muscle and renal BMAL1 knockout mice.
Normal blood pressure has regular circadian rhythm, which is disrupted in up to 75% diabetic patients in association with detrimental cardiovascular outcomes. We found that the blood pressure circadian rhythm is effectively protected if the diabetic mice were only allowed access to food during their active time (eat at the right time). The proposed study will investigate the mechanisms underlying this protection and test the potential of limiting feeding to active time as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve the prognosis in diabetic patients.