The proposed program of research is intended to help clarify the structure and construction of consistency in social behavior. The key issues here concern the nature of the consistencies, over time and across contexts, that characterize social behavior and the construction (social perception) of consistency in personality. Theoretically, the work is guided by a synthesis of cognitive social learning theory and a prototype approach to the categorization of social behavior and situations. Methodologically, the program utilizes a series of larger scale observational field studies to test hypotheses about the nature and construction of consistency and utility of alternative ways of conceptualizing and categorizing the data. In the initial phases, two dimensions of social behavior, conscientiousness and friendliness, will be extensively assessed over time and across contexts in samples of college students living in a small residential campus. The focus will be on the temporal stability and cross-situational consistency of the students' behavior catergorized in various theory-guided ways, and on the links between these behaviors and indices of perceived consistency and prototypicality. Throughout, we will employ a broad range of measures, from the molecular to the more molar. A number of potentially relevant moderator variables (e.g., perceived cross-situational variability, self-monitoring, self-schemata) will also be included. Other dimensions of social behavior will also be explored with the same general method in selected samples of children.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Research Project (R01)
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Mental Health Behavioral Sciences Research Review Committee (BSR)
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Columbia University (N.Y.)
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New York
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Schlam, Tanya R; Wilson, Nicole L; Shoda, Yuichi et al. (2013) Preschoolers' delay of gratification predicts their body mass 30 years later. J Pediatr 162:90-3
Shoda, Yuichi; Wilson, Nicole L; Chen, Jessica et al. (2013) Cognitive-affective processing system analysis of intra-individual dynamics in collaborative therapeutic assessment: translating basic theory and research into clinical applications. J Pers 81:554-68
Berman, Marc G; Yourganov, Grigori; Askren, Mary K et al. (2013) Dimensionality of brain networks linked to life-long individual differences in self-control. Nat Commun 4:1373
Zayas, Vivian; Greenwald, Anthony G; Osterhout, Lee (2011) Unintentional covert motor activations predict behavioral effects: Multilevel modeling of trial-level electrophysiological motor activations. Psychophysiology 48:208-17
Mischel, Walter; Ayduk, Ozlem; Berman, Marc G et al. (2011) 'Willpower' over the life span: decomposing self-regulation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 6:252-6
Whitsett, Donna D; Almvig, Tai; Shoda, Yuichi (2010) Identifying the distress cues that influence support provision: a paired comparison approach. J Soc Psychol 150:503-19
Zayas, Vivian; Shoda, Yuichi; Mischel, Walter et al. (2009) Neural responses to partner rejection cues. Psychol Sci 20:813-21
Ayduk, Ozlem; Kross, Ethan (2008) Enhancing the pace of recovery: self-distanced analysis of negative experiences reduces blood pressure reactivity. Psychol Sci 19:229-31
Kross, Ethan; Ayduk, Ozlem (2008) Facilitating adaptive emotional analysis: distinguishing distanced-analysis of depressive experiences from immersed-analysis and distraction. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 34:924-38
Zayas, Vivian; Shoda, Yuichi (2007) Predicting preferences for dating partners from past experiences of psychological abuse: identifying the psychological ingredients of situations. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 33:123-38

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