One hundred six victims of a plane crash, mass murders, and a tornado who were previously interviewed in the acute phase [(Quick Response study)] will be followed up at [three] years. Two hundred additional subjects who are [direct] victims of selected future disasters and 200 [indirectly] exposed subjects from similar sites will also be interviewed at index (4-6 weeks after the event) and [at one and three] years [postdisaster]. This project will consist of a systematic longitudinal study examining the course of recovery and long-term psychiatric outcome following disasters. In addition, combined prospective acute and long-term postdisaster data from several different disaster settings (from previous and future Quick Response studies) will permit disentanglement of the myriad of variables within the models of disaster typology and human stress experience. These comparisons can be made because the same interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement (DIS/DS) has been used for all parts of the study, as well as for the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study, which will provide a source of general population data. Better understanding of the needs of disaster victims and of disaster typology will provide the basis for future well-designed intervention programs specifically tailored to the population's needs.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Research Project (R01)
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Life Course and Prevention Research Review Committee (LCR)
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Washington University
Schools of Medicine
Saint Louis
United States
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North, Carol S; Baron, David; Chen, Anthony F (2018) Prevalence and predictors of postdisaster major depression: Convergence of evidence from 11 disaster studies using consistent methods. J Psychiatr Res 102:96-101
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; North, Carol S et al. (2014) Children of terrorism survivors: physiological reactions seven years following a terrorist incident. Compr Psychiatry 55:749-54
North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A et al. (2013) Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study. Disasters 37:101-18
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; North, Carol S et al. (2012) Autonomic reactivity and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysregulation in spouses of Oklahoma City bombing survivors 7 years after the attack. Compr Psychiatry 53:901-6
North, Carol S; Cloninger, C Robert (2012) Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing. Depress Res Treat 2012:204741
North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kawasaki, Aya et al. (2011) Psychosocial adjustment of directly exposed survivors 7 years after the Oklahoma City bombing. Compr Psychiatry 52:1-8
North, Carol S; Hong, Barry A; Suris, Alina et al. (2008) Distinguishing distress and psychopathology among survivors of the Oakland/Berkeley firestorm. Psychiatry 71:35-45
North, Carol S; Pollio, David E; Pfefferbaum, Betty et al. (2005) Capitol hill staff workers' experiences of bioterrorism: qualitative findings from focus groups. J Trauma Stress 18:79-88
North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Narayanan, Pushpa et al. (2005) Comparison of post-disaster psychiatric disorders after terrorist bombings in Nairobi and Oklahoma City. Br J Psychiatry 186:487-93
North, Carol S; Pollio, David E; Pfefferbaum, Betty et al. (2005) Concerns of Capitol Hill staff workers after bioterrorism: focus group discussions of authorities' response. J Nerv Ment Dis 193:523-7

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