This is a competing continuation application to study the development and consequences of adolescents' efforts to resist maladaptive peer pressure while still learning to form strong, supportive peer relationships. This investigation extends theories about adolescents' developing autonomy and relatedness with parents to explore parallel processes that occur as adolescents strive to demonstrate resiliency in the face of inappropriate peer pressure (e.g., establish autonomy with peers) and form adaptive peer relationships in three conceptually-bounded studies: ? ? Study I. Development of Autonomy and Relatedness in Peer Relationships. We first seek to sharpen our understanding of the construct of peer pressure, which we conceptualize as a normatively occurring threat to adolescent autonomy. We distinguish peer pressure from other forms of peer influence that do not threaten adolescent autonomy, and then test the hypothesis that adolescents' success vs. failure in avoiding pressuring relationships while developing autonomy maintaining relationships will predict levels of social adaptation across adolescence.Study II. Family Interactions As Predictors Of Developing Peer Relationship Qualities. In this study, we address the question: To what extent and in what ways does the family serve as a staging ground for the adolescent to develop social skills and expectations that will determine the quality of their peer interactions. We will also examine the conditions under which peer relationships may buffer the negative mental health effects of problematic family interactions.Study Ill. The Relation Of Peer Processes To Critical Adaptational Outcomes. In this study, we consider how the developing peer relationship qualities that we have observed and predicted in the first two studies predict critical adaptational outcomes including hostility with peers, risky sexual behavior, externalizing problems, depression, social isolation, and difficulty establishing successful romantic relationships. We address these questions using intensive, observational, and multiple-reporter data from a socio-demographically heterogeneous final sample of 172 adolescents, their parents, and peers, with adolescents ultimately being followed annually from ages 13 to 21.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-SSS-D (01))
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Price, Leshawndra N
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University of Virginia
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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Allen, Joseph P; Grande, Leah; Tan, Joseph et al. (2018) Parent and Peer Predictors of Change in Attachment Security From Adolescence to Adulthood. Child Dev 89:1120-1132
Loeb, Emily L; Tan, Joseph S; Hessel, Elenda T et al. (2018) Getting What You Expect: Negative Social Expectations in Early Adolescence Predict Hostile Romantic Partnerships and Friendships Into Adulthood. J Early Adolesc 38:475-496
Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P (2018) Long-Term Risks and Possible Benefits Associated with Late Adolescent Romantic Relationship Quality. J Youth Adolesc 47:1531-1544
Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P (2018) Making Sense and Moving On: The Potential for Individual and Interpersonal Growth Following Emerging Adult Breakups. Emerg Adulthood 6:172-190
Allen, Joseph P; Loeb, Emily L; Tan, Joseph S et al. (2018) The body remembers: Adolescent conflict struggles predict adult interleukin-6 levels. Dev Psychopathol 30:1435-1445
Brown, Casey L; Beckes, Lane; Allen, Joseph P et al. (2017) Subjective General Health and the Social Regulation of Hypothalamic Activity. Psychosom Med 79:670-673
Pace, Emma J; Somerville, Nicholas J; Enyioha, Chineme et al. (2017) Effects of a Brief Psychosocial Intervention on Inpatient Satisfaction: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Fam Med 49:675-678
Gregory, A; Ruzek, E; Hafen, C A et al. (2017) My Teaching Partner-Secondary: A video-based coaching model. Theory Pract 56:38-45
Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P (2017) Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity. J Youth Adolesc 46:454-465
Mikami, Amori Yee; Ruzek, Erik A; Hafen, Christopher A et al. (2017) Perceptions of Relatedness with Classroom Peers Promote Adolescents' Behavioral Engagement and Achievement in Secondary School. J Youth Adolesc 46:2341-2354

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