Increasing ethnic diversity of the U.S. population requires health professionals to practice with greater cultural competence in areas such as the management of menopausal symptoms, where cultural beliefs mediate the biology of reproduction and aging. A growing number of studies have challenged the universality of menopausal symptoms by indicating significant ethnic differences in how women experience them. However, few investigators have studied ethnic populations in the U.S., and few studies have been national in scope. With advances in computer technologies, the Internet now provides an excellent medium of national and international communication and allows people in different geographical areas to communicate and exchange their experiences and opinions. The proposed study uses innovative Internet data collection methods to collect national data and essential information about specific ethnic differences in menopausal symptom experience while respecting women's own experiences.
The specific aims are to: a) explore ethnic differences in menopausal symptom experience reported by 4 of the most common ethnic groups of women across the U.S. (Hispanic, non-Hispanic (N-H) White, N-H African American, and N-H Asian); and b) explore the ethnic-specific contexts of women's daily lives that influence women's self-reported menopausal symptom experience. A feminist approach will guide the research process. Innovative data collection methods will be used, including an Internet survey among 500 middle-aged women recruited using the quota sampling method with multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet settings, and online forums of 6-month duration among 4 different ethnic groups (30 members per group) recruited from among the Internet survey participants. Long-term goals are to: a) contribute to recognition of women's own menopausal symptom experience so that health care can be planned and provided from women's own views and perspectives; b) develop decision support systems for menopausal symptom management that can be validated across diverse practice settings; and c) eliminate ethnic biases and inequity in menopausal symptom management and promote culturally competent care for menopausal women.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-NSCF (01))
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Tigno, Xenia
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University of Texas Austin
Schools of Nursing
United States
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Im, Eun-Ok; Hu, Yun; Cheng, Ching-Yu et al. (2018) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cognitive Symptoms During the Menopausal Transition. West J Nurs Res :193945918767660
Im, Eun-Ok; Hu, Yun; Cheng, Ching-Yu et al. (2018) Clusters of midlife women identified by cognitive symptoms. Maturitas 110:33-40
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Eunice et al. (2018) The relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women: The structural equation modeling. Women Health :1-17
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice et al. (2017) Associations of Immigration Transition to Cardiovascular Symptoms Experienced in Menopausal Transition. Fam Community Health 40:357-366
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice et al. (2017) Midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms: A cluster analysis. Health Care Women Int 38:1275-1288
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice et al. (2017) Immigration transition and sleep-related symptoms experienced during menopausal transition. Women Health 57:69-87
Im, Eun-Ok; Kim, Jinyoung; Chee, Eunice et al. (2016) The relationships between psychological symptoms and cardiovascular symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition: racial/ethnic differences. Menopause 23:396-402
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik et al. (2015) Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States. Health Care Women Int 36:439-56
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice et al. (2015) Cluster analysis of midlife women's sleep-related symptoms: racial/ethnic differences. Menopause 22:1182-9
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Wonshik (2014) Ethnic differences in the clusters of menopausal symptoms. Health Care Women Int 35:549-65

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