Panel Study of Effects of Changes in Nursing on Patient Outcomes. The organization and practice of nursing have substantial positive effects on patient care and patient outcomes. As a result of our NINR-sponsored research program continually funded since 1997, organization-based nursing interventions are now more often considered as potential solutions to poor quality and unsafe care. Organizational factors include nurse education, via preferential hiring practices and educational benefits to employees~ nurse staffing, an evolving """"""""industry standard"""""""" that has been the focus of legislation~ human resource policies which determine nursing skill mix~ and the nursing work environment-the organizational practices fostering the autonomy and authority required for nurses to translate their education and experience into effective nursing care. In large, multi-state surveys of US nurses conducted in 1999 and in 2006, we have applied innovative sampling, aggregation, and measurement methods to provide rich information on nursing never before available for large numbers of healthcare organizations that is linked to patient outcomes to document the empirical relationship between nursing and outcomes. These data have been used to answer a range of compelling practice and policy questions about the contributions of nurses to safe, effective care. This application is an efficient, innovative extension of our line of research creating a large study of the impact of change in nursing factors on outcomes, seeking to determine more about causality in order to spur implementation of recommendations emerging from research. We will replicate in 2014 measurements made in 2006 (and 1999 in Pennsylvania) across approximately 665 hospitals and hundreds of nursing homes and home care agencies in four large states with measurement before and after the national economic downturn and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. The great strength of the application is that in creating a panel of organizational observations, we can see where change has occurred and why.
Specific aims are to: 1) Collect data from random samples of nurses in CA, FL, NJ, and PA~ 2) Examine organizational-level changes over time in nurse inputs in (a) education, (b) staffing, (c) skill mix, and (d) work environment between 1999, 2006, and 2014~ 3) Estimate the effects of organizational-level changes on outcomes for patients including minorities and those with chronic illnesses and determine whether lesser improvement in nursing resources in minority serving hospitals has widened the disparity in outcomes between white and minority patients~ and 4) Determine the effects of nursing factors in nursing home and home health agency patient outcomes while accounting for variation in patient clinical severity and complexity. The overarching aim of the proposed study is to determine points of comparatively low-cost organizational leverage of nursing inputs to improve patient outcomes.

Public Health Relevance

In studying health care organizations over time, we learn what kinds of changes in nursing resources have occurred and thus are possible, and the consequences of changes for quality of care and patient outcomes. Understanding more about the causal links between investments in nursing and patient outcomes will inform healthcare organizations about how to target their nursing investments to maximize safe, effective care for patients.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Nursing and Related Clinical Sciences Study Section (NRCS)
Program Officer
Mccloskey, Donna J
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of Pennsylvania
Other Health Professions
Schools of Nursing
United States
Zip Code
Lasater, Karen B; Sloane, Douglas M; McHugh, Matthew D et al. (2018) Quality of End-of-Life Care and Its Association with Nurse Practice Environments in U.S. Hospitals. J Am Geriatr Soc :
Lake, Eileen T; Staiger, Douglas; Edwards, Erika Miles et al. (2018) Nursing Care Disparities in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Health Serv Res 53 Suppl 1:3007-3026
Sloane, Douglas M; Smith, Herbert L; McHugh, Matthew D et al. (2018) Effect of Changes in Hospital Nursing Resources on Improvements in Patient Safety and Quality of Care: A Panel Study. Med Care 56:1001-1008
Ball, Jane E; Bruyneel, Luk; Aiken, Linda H et al. (2018) Post-operative mortality, missed care and nurse staffing in nine countries: A cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud 78:10-15
White, Elizabeth M; Smith, Jessica G; Trotta, Rebecca L et al. (2018) Lower Postsurgical Mortality for Individuals with Dementia with Better-Educated Hospital Workforce. J Am Geriatr Soc 66:1137-1143
Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas M; Ball, Jane et al. (2018) Patient satisfaction with hospital care and nurses in England: an observational study. BMJ Open 8:e019189
Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas M; Barnes, Hilary et al. (2018) Nurses' And Patients' Appraisals Show Patient Safety In Hospitals Remains A Concern. Health Aff (Millwood) 37:1744-1751
Germack, Hayley D; McHugh, Matthew D; Sloane, Douglas M et al. (2017) U.S. Hospital Employment of Foreign-Educated Nurses and Patient Experience: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Nurs Regul 8:26-35
Barnes, Hilary; Maier, Claudia B; Altares Sarik, Danielle et al. (2017) Effects of Regulation and Payment Policies on Nurse Practitioners' Clinical Practices. Med Care Res Rev 74:431-451
Lake, Eileen T; de Cordova, Pamela B; Barton, Sharon et al. (2017) Missed Nursing Care in Pediatrics. Hosp Pediatr 7:378-384

Showing the most recent 10 out of 18 publications