A number of the behavioral sequelae that occur after damage to the brain, such as stroke or traumatic injury, can be explained by abnormalities in the integration of sensory information and motor commands. This project uses brain imaging and non-invasive brain stimulation, combined with novel perturbations of grasping movements with robotics and virtual environments to study the roles played by frontoparietal brain areas in different stages of sensorimotor integration and to identify specific contributions of brain networks subserving goal-directed grasping. The overarching goal of this project is use a healthy-human lesion model to make causal inferences regarding the roles played by frontoparietal cortices in two major stages of sensorimotor integration: during motor planning when visual information of the target goal and haptic information of the hand is transformed into motor commands, and during movement updating when estimates of the sensory consequences of motor commands occur (generation of a forward model). We leverage the time-tested approaches involving perturbations to the target goal and the arm motor plant (perturbations of extrinsic and intrinsic space) that have been used to study sensorimotor integration in the reach system, and apply them to study the grasp circuit, which is controlled by a unique and segregated neural network that is comparatively understudied. This is the first systematic study in humans to test the unique contributions of frontoparietal cortices in planning and forward modeling of hand shape for grasping, and how these processes interact in the context of intrinsic versus extrinsic reference frames. The central goal of Aim 1 is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the neural bases of motor planning in external vs. internal space and accordingly test the causal involvement of these regions with fMRI-neuronavigated transient lesions elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Aim 2 complements the previous aim by testing the causal involvement of grasp-related frontoparietal areas in online updating of grasp. Here, we leverage multivariate analyses of kinematic responses to novel perturbations of hand configuration and movement goals during grasping to dissociate the involvement of these areas in generation of forward models for hand shape versus integrating sensory information into the motor plan.
This project will advance our understanding of basic neural mechanisms of grasping, a largely understudied area of human neuroscience. It is highly relevant to public health because these findings will inform the neural underpinnings of sensorimotor integration, explain a host of pathologies of movement and perception, and aide in identifying cortical targets for interventions extracting neural signals for brain-computer interfaces and cortical stimulation in patient populations.
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|Saleh, Soha; Fluet, Gerard; Qiu, Qinyin et al. (2017) Neural Patterns of Reorganization after Intensive Robot-Assisted Virtual Reality Therapy and Repetitive Task Practice in Patients with Chronic Stroke. Front Neurol 8:452|
|Saleh, Soha; Yarossi, Mathew; Manuweera, Thushini et al. (2017) Network interactions underlying mirror feedback in stroke: A dynamic causal modeling study. Neuroimage Clin 13:46-54|
|Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Mathew et al. (2017) Exploring the impact of visual and movement based priming on a motor intervention in the acute phase post-stroke in persons with severe hemiparesis of the upper extremity. Disabil Rehabil 39:1515-1523|
|Yarossi, Mathew; Manuweera, Thushini; Adamovich, Sergei V et al. (2017) The Effects of Mirror Feedback during Target Directed Movements on Ipsilateral Corticospinal Excitability. Front Hum Neurosci 11:242|
|Schettino, Luis F; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene (2017) Coordination of pincer grasp and transport after mechanical perturbation of the index finger. J Neurophysiol 117:2292-2297|
|Schettino, Luis F; Adamovich, Sergei V; Bagce, Hamid et al. (2015) Disruption of activity in the ventral premotor but not the anterior intraparietal area interferes with on-line correction to a haptic perturbation during grasping. J Neurosci 35:2112-7|
|Yarossi, Mathew; Adamovich, Sergei; Tunik, Eugene (2014) Sensorimotor cortex reorganization in subacute and chronic stroke: A neuronavigated TMS study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2014:5788-91|