The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence and distribution of workplace violence among female and male long-haul truck drivers and the effects of violence on their mental health. An average of 20 workers are murdered each week in the U.S., and an estimated 18,000 workers per week are victims of non-fatal assault (NIOSH, 2001 ). Homicide is the leading cause of death among U.S. women in the workplace and, depending on the geographic area, the first, second or third leading cause of death among all workers (Simonowitz et al., 1997). Sixteen percent of workplace homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner (NIOSH, 2001).
The specific aims are to: (1) identify the types of violence that women and men experience while working as a long-haul truck driver; (2) identify risk factors that contribute to violence against truckers and between truckers; (3) differentiate the risks of work-related stress among distinct sociodemographic groups of truckers as they relate to specific exposures experienced by long-haul truck drivers; (4) determine the prevalence of domestic violence experienced by long-haul truck drivers when their driving partner is their intimate partner; and (5) identify work environment factors that place truck drivers' safety at risk.
The aims of this project are consistent with the Healthy People 2010 objectives that address the reduction of work-related homicides (Objective 20-5) and work-related assaults (Objective 20-6), and with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Objectives. They also address types of violence identified by the Iowa Report to the Nation on Workplace Violence (2001 ). The project specifically focuses on risk factors related to workplace violence in the long-haul trucking profession. A cross-sectional, non-intervention design using both quantitative and qualitative methods will be used to collect data. A quantitative survey will be conducted with a nonprobability sample of women and men (N = 1,400) recruited at truck shows and truck stops across the U.S. Data will be collected on violence-related variables (e.g., harassment, weapons, assault, rape, robbery, worksite security, fatigue, psychological strain, and substance abuse). Qualitative data on violence at the worksite will be collected via 60 phone interviews with a purposive sample of 30 female and 30 male participants. The interviewees will answer open-ended questions about workplace violence. The findings will assist in the development of interventions to decrease the risk of exposure to violence in the long haul trucking industry. A sequential and staged approach to the analysis of the data will be used. Dependent on the specific aim, bivariate relationships, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and ANCOVA will be used. Content analysis will be used to describe, analyze, and interpret the qualitative data for core consistencies and meanings described by truckers.
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