In this proposal, gender differences in temporal lobe morphology, including temporal lobe total volume, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus and the amygdala/hippocampal complex, will be assessed, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Temporal lobe volumes will be determined using state-of-the-art, three-dimensional """"""""spoiled grass"""""""" MRI technology. Eighty patients with schizophrenia, including 40 men and 40 women, along with eighty age, and SES head of household matched normal controls (40 men and 40 women) will undergo MRI. Temporal lobe morphology of male and female patients with schizophrenia will be compared with male and female normal controls. The temporal lobe has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, and formal thought disorder) observed in patients with schizophrenia. An exploratory analysis will be performed to examine longitudinal positive symptom profiles in male and female patients with schizophrenia and their relationship to temporal lobe morphology. Also, an exploratory analysis will be performed to examine the relationship between temporal lobe- morphology and scores on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale, the Level of Function Scale and the Quality of Life Scale. The documentation of male/female neuroanatomical differences in patients with schizophrenia and potential differences in neuroanatomical substrates of positive symptoms and outcome measures would provide new information on the interaction between gender-related differences in brain structure and function and the pathophysiology of gender differences in schizophrenia.