Filial values are present to some extent in all cultures, but assumed to be stronger in some than others (Dai & Dimond, 1998). Although a few measures of filial values exist (for example filial obligation, filial anxiety, and filial responsibility), two limitations remain: (1) they usually address a single component of filial beliefs and (2) they have been used with ethnically specific populations. To date, the filial values of Asian Americans have been examined more than those of any other group. A multi-component measure of filial values is needed that has been developed with input from ethnically diverse caregiving experts and tested for use with multiple ethnic groups. The purpose of this study is to develop and pilot test a multi-component measure of filial values, the Filial Values Index (FVI), for use in four ethnic groups: African, Asian, Euro and Hispanic Americans. In this study, filial values are defined as beliefs and attitudes regarding obligation and devotion of adult children to their aging parents. The FVI is based on conceptual categories identified in qualitative data from Asian American women caregivers (Jones, Zhang, Jaceldo & Meleis, 2001; Jones, Zhang & Meleis, in press), survey data from a convenience sample of adult sons and daughters in the People's Republic of China (unpublished data, Jones, Zhang, and Lee), and from a review of related literature (e.g., Ishii-Kuntz, 1997; Sung, 1998). Pilot testing of the FVI will be done on 400 participants age 21 or over, 100 from each of the four ethnic groups. Content validity will be established prior to the pilot-testing through the input of cultural informants. Confirmatory factor analysis will be performed and the FVI revised based on these results. Ethnic differences among the groups on the filial values scales, and the relationship between these scales and attitudes toward ethical and legal issues in caregiving will be explored to test for construct validity. This new multi-component measure of filial values will provide the basis for later research leading to a better understanding of how filial values contribute to both positive and negative outcomes of filial caregiving. Through this knowledge interventions to improve outcomes of filial caregiving can be identified. ? ? ?

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Small Research Grants (R03)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-NSCF (01))
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Toward, Jeffrey I
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Loma Linda University
Schools of Nursing
Loma Linda
United States
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Jones, Patricia S; Lee, Jerry W; Zhang, Xinwei E (2011) Clarifying and measuring filial concepts across five cultural groups. Res Nurs Health 34:310-26