Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to long-term neurological dysfunction. The extent of secondary neuronal death (mediated synergistically by pathophysiologic events that include but not limited to inflammation, oxidative stress, ER stress and ionic imbalance) dictates the functional outcome after TBI. The present proposal wishes to evaluate if controlling oxidative stress and the interconnected inflammation can minimize the secondary brain damage leading to improved neurological recovery in rodents subjected to TBI. We will test apocynin that inhibits NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 and thus curtails reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and TBHQ that potentiates the transcription factor Nrf2 which is upstream to many antioxidant genes and thus efficiently neutralizes ROS. Our preliminary data provided the proof-of-principle for the efficacy of these 2 drugs in a rodent TBI model. In this proposal we will identify the minimal efficacious dose and the window of opportunity for the 2 drugs. As secondary brain damage after TBI is multifactorial, a combination therapy to achieve neuroprotection by targeting multiple interactive pathways might be more efficacious than mono-therapies that target single pathways. To efficiently control oxidative stress, it is essential to curtail the formation of ROS and at the same time increase the disposal of ROS. Hence, we will test if a combination of apocynin and TBHQ curtails neuronal death and neurological dysfunction after TBI more effectively.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Small Research Grants (R03)
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Acute Neural Injury and Epilepsy Study Section (ANIE)
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Bellgowan, Patrick S F
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University of Wisconsin Madison
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Chandran, Raghavendar; Mehta, Suresh L; Vemuganti, Raghu (2017) Non-coding RNAs and neuroprotection after acute CNS injuries. Neurochem Int 111:12-22
Nakka, Venkata Prasuja; Prakash-Babu, Phanithi; Vemuganti, Raghu (2016) Crosstalk Between Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Autophagy: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Acute CNS Injuries. Mol Neurobiol 53:532-544
Kim, Tae-Hee; Vemuganti, Raghu (2015) Effect of sex and age interactions on functional outcome after stroke. CNS Neurosci Ther 21:327-36
Lopez, Mary S; Dempsey, Robert J; Vemuganti, Raghu (2015) Resveratrol neuroprotection in stroke and traumatic CNS injury. Neurochem Int 89:75-82
Vemuganti, Raghu; Zhao, Heng (2015) Mechanisms and therapies for acute CNS insults. Metab Brain Dis 30:353
Mehta, Suresh L; Kim, TaeHee; Vemuganti, Raghu (2015) Long Noncoding RNA FosDT Promotes Ischemic Brain Injury by Interacting with REST-Associated Chromatin-Modifying Proteins. J Neurosci 35:16443-9
Vemuganti, Raghu; Silva, Vinícius R; Mehta, Suresh L et al. (2014) Acute liver failure-induced hepatic encephalopathy s associated with changes in microRNA expression rofiles in cerebral cortex of the mouse [corrected]. Metab Brain Dis 29:891-9
Mehta, Suresh L; Dharap, Ashutosh; Vemuganti, Raghu (2014) Expression of transcribed ultraconserved regions of genome in rat cerebral cortex. Neurochem Int 77:86-93
Vemuganti, Raghu (2014) Non-coding RNAs in CNS disorders--the long and short of it. Neurochem Int 77:1
Vemuganti, Raghu; Hazell, Alan S (2014) Mechanisms of hepatic encephalopathy and thiamine deficiency. Metab Brain Dis 29:889-90