The long-term goal of this proposal is to delineate how energy utilization in bone cells is regulated and in turn, how substrate availability affects osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Optimal bone formation is required for peak bone acquisition and skeletal remodeling across the lifespan. We previously showed IGF-I is necessary for terminal OB differentiation through the mTORC1 pathway. Moreover, PTH induces skeletal IGF-I and this peptide is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone. Previously we noted that in C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice, the latter exhibits higher bone density, greater bone formation, and more skeletal Igf1 expression. Importantly, C3H COBs have higher rates of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and glycolysis (Glyc) than B6. We then established that during terminal OB differentiation glycolysis (Glyc) is favored over OxPhos in both strains and that PTH, which stimulates IGF-I, increases Glyc in both COBs and calvariae ex vivo. To understand the role of the IGF pathway in the bioenergetics of OB differentiation, we have been studying the sml/sml mouse that has a defect in mTOR signaling due to a 'loss of function' mutation in the Irs1 gene. These mice have very low bone mass, reduced bone formation but normal OB number and osteoid volume. Remarkably, sml/sml COBs have significantly reduced OxPhos and Glyc during OB differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Taken together these data point to the importance of energy metabolism during bone formation, and the central role of IGF-I in cellular respiration. As such, in this proposal our over- arching hypothesis is that PTH stimulates bone formation by enhancing Glyc through the induction of IGF-I, which in turn activates IRS1/ mTorc/AKT signaling. Thus we propose 2 specific aims in a high risk, high impact strategy to delineate the importance of substrate availability during PTH induced bone formation using novel single cell imaging and bioenergetic studies of OBs and calvariae: 1-Determine the context-specific nature of OB respiration and Glyc as well as its relationship to bone formation in response to PTH in +/+ and sml/sml mice in vitro and ex vivo: We propose there is a time dependent switch during COB differentiation under the influence of PTH when Glyc is activated, leading to enhanced synthesis and mineralization of matrix. Novel in situ imaging and cellular respiration studies will be employed to determine PTH actions on single cell bioenergetics and will be compared with in vitro studies. 2-Define the importance of the IRS/ mTORC1 mTORC2/AKT signaling pathway for PTH-stimulated changes in energy balance in differentiated OBs. We postulate that mTORC2 activation via the IRS/AKT pathway is critical for up regulating Glyc during the OB differentiation following PTH. We will delineate te relationship of individual signaling components of the mTOR pathway to OB bioenergetics. Findings from these studies could lead to novel insights into the fundamental biology of OBs and enhance the possibility of newer anabolic approaches for skeletal disorders.

Public Health Relevance

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the only treatment for osteoporosis that builds bone mass. However, the mechanism of its action is still widely debated. Understanding how substrate utilization affects the bone cell response to PTH could have far-reaching implications for newer bone building agents in the treatment of osteoporosis.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
Exploratory/Developmental Grants (R21)
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Skeletal Biology Development and Disease Study Section (SBDD)
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Alekel, D Lee
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Maine Medical Center
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Guntur, Anyonya R; Gerencser, Akos A; Le, Phuong T et al. (2018) Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 Cells Prefer Glycolysis for ATP Production but Adipocyte-like 3T3-L1 Cells Prefer Oxidative Phosphorylation. J Bone Miner Res 33:1052-1065
Uchimura, Tomoya; Hollander, Judith M; Nakamura, Daisy S et al. (2017) An essential role for IGF2 in cartilage development and glucose metabolism during postnatal long bone growth. Development 144:3533-3546
Oxburgh, Leif; Rosen, Clifford J (2017) New Insights into Fuel Choices of Nephron Progenitor Cells. J Am Soc Nephrol 28:3133-3135
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Fan, Yi; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Le, Phuong T et al. (2017) Parathyroid Hormone Directs Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cell Fate. Cell Metab 25:661-672
Lee, Wen-Chih; Guntur, Anyonya R; Long, Fanxin et al. (2017) Energy Metabolism of the Osteoblast: Implications for Osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 38:255-266
Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin et al. (2017) Positive Feedback Amplifies the Response of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential to Glucose Concentration in Clonal Pancreatic Beta Cells. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 1863:1054-1065
Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Guntur, Anyonya R; Rosen, Clifford J (2017) Intracellular lipid droplets support osteoblast function. Adipocyte 6:250-258
Xi, Gang; Shen, Xinchun; Rosen, Clifford J et al. (2016) IRS-1 Functions as a Molecular Scaffold to Coordinate IGF-I/IGFBP-2 Signaling During Osteoblast Differentiation. J Bone Miner Res 31:1300-14
Dadwal, Ushashi; Falank, Carolyne; Fairfield, Heather et al. (2016) Tissue-engineered 3D cancer-in-bone modeling: silk and PUR protocols. Bonekey Rep 5:842

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