The proposed research develops and tests a novel social-cognitive theory of personality and smoking. The model specifies cognitive structures and processes that underlie individual differences in people's ability to self-regulate their behavior when attempting to refrain from smoking. The work addresses a major gap in knowledge in the study of addictive processes, namely, knowledge of how to identify individuating personality factors that predict rates of smoking and cessation. The theory is tested in two laboratory studies. Both explore relations among three cognitive elements: 1) knowledge structures concerning the self, or self-schemas; 2) situational beliefs about the relevance of schematic attributes to everyday social contexts; and c) appraisals of one's capability to cope with smoking urges in these contexts, or self-efficacy appraisals. The model predicts that schematic knowledge structures and situational beliefs underlie individual differences in self-efficacy, where those individual differences should manifest themselves as broad, yet contextualized, patterns of high versus low self-efficacy belief. Two laboratory studies, in which college-aged current smokers are to participate, test these predictions. In the first, the cognitive personality factors are assessed as individual difference variables. In the second, they are manipulated experimentally. The studies thus are designed to provide converging evidence to test the causal elements of the theory. In both studies, it is predicted that self schemas and situational beliefs will account for individual differences in both levels of self-efficacy and in the speed with which people appraise their efficacy to refrain from smoking. Our theory identifies cognitions that can be targeted in future interventions. The work thus speaks not only to the long-term goal of predicting individual differences in smoking and cessation, but also the goal of tailoring interventions to be of maximum benefit to individual participants.
|Cervone, Daniel; Orom, Heather; Artistico, Daniele et al. (2007) Using a knowledge-and-appraisal model of personality architecture to understand consistency and variability in smokers'self-efficacy appraisals in high-risk situations. Psychol Addict Behav 21:44-54|
|Cervone, Daniel (2005) Personality architecture: within-person structures and processes. Annu Rev Psychol 56:423-52|
|Cervone, David (2004) The architecture of personality. Psychol Rev 111:183-204|