We propose to develop highly active and stable antifouling and self-cleaning coatings that resist bacterial biofilm formation and provide a first line of defense against oral bacterial colonization. By taking advantage of enzyme-nanomaterial-polymer composite architectures, we will generate multifunctional coatings that target multiple steps in the pathway to biofilm formation. These coatings will degrade adsorbed proteins that form a """"""""conditioning film"""""""" mediating bacterial attachment, will be microbicidal (directly active against bacteria), and will also degrade polysaccharides that are major components of the matrix comprising a biofilm. These coatings will be stable for long periods without need for regeneration, and will be mechanically robust. The premise of this study is that such active and stable enzyme-containing coatings will provide a biocompatible, highly selective, and potent therapy against the mechanisms that lead to dental disease, particularly the formation of dental plaque on teeth and oral implants. Our preliminary work has already demonstrated our ability to generate self-cleaning composites that completely inhibit protein adsorption. Furthermore, we have shown that supports having nanoscale dimensions dramatically enhance the stability of adsorbed enzymes, leading to composite films with greater activity and long-term stability. ? ? The specific goals of this work are: ? 1. To elucidate the mechanism of enzyme activation and stabilization on nanoscale materials, such as singlewalled carbon nanotubes, carbon buckyball aggregates, and metallic nanoparticles. This information is critical to design optimal enzyme-nanomaterial-polymeric composites with antifouling and self-cleaning properties. ? 2. To incorporate selected enzymes identified in Aim 1 into optimal enzyme-nanomaterial-polymer composites and demonstrate the antifouling and self-cleaning capacity of these surfaces under conditions, in vitro, that mimic long-term oral use. ? ? These studies will be the foundation for the design and implementation of antifouling and self-cleaning enzyme-nanomaterial-polymeric composite coatings and films for long-term use in the mouth. The results generated during this R21 grant will form the basis for a more comprehensive R01 submission and ultimate collaboration with a clinical partner. ? ?

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Exploratory/Developmental Grants (R21)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZDE1-YL (66))
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Drummond, James A
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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Engineering (All Types)
Schools of Engineering
United States
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Pangule, Ravindra C; Brooks, Sarah J; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica et al. (2010) Antistaphylococcal nanocomposite films based on enzyme-nanotube conjugates. ACS Nano 4:3993-4000
Asuri, Prashanth; Karajanagi, Sandeep S; Kane, Ravi S et al. (2007) Polymer-nanotube-enzyme composites as active antifouling films. Small 3:50-3
Asuri, Prashanth; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Pangule, Ravindra C et al. (2007) Structure, function, and stability of enzymes covalently attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes. Langmuir 23:12318-21