Health management of older adults can be improved through convenient and objective assessment of their gait. Although a number of quantitative measures of walking, such as the variability of steps taken, have been shown to predict the risk of falls, these measurements are difficult to obtain outside the laboratory. It would be helpful to obtain accurate and objective measures in the clinic or even in the home during normal activities of daily living. Long-term monitoring could even be used to track compliance to a rehabilitation program or to determine when the dosage of medicines should be adjusted, all without requiring frequent visits to the clinic. Unfortunately, current devices for long-term monitoring are limited to simplistic data such as step count, and there is no convenient means to accurately measure the gait variables most indicative of mobility, balance, and fall risk. Miniature sensors are rapidly improving in accuracy and power economy, offering great potential for field-based activity assessment. Simple accelerometer-based devices have been miniaturized, and wireless systems can provide rough estimates of running speed and distance accurate enough for casual use, while remaining unobtrusive enough to wear conveniently for long durations. New microchip technologies make it feasible for highly accurate, inertial sensor systems to be packaged similarly for daily use. A major barrier for gait measurements is the need to eliminate drift errors that occur with these devices when estimating stride length and other quantities related to mobility. This project seeks to develop sensor fusion algorithms for this purpose, and integrate them with wearable inertial measurement sensors.
The Specific Aims of this project are to: 1. Implement drift reduction algorithms and software for integrating inertial sensor data to accurately estimate gait parameters. 2. Develop wireless sensor and receiver unit hardware for field-based gait monitoring, with miniature packages suitable for long-term use. 3. Perform accuracy and usability testing on younger and older adults, to characterize device specifications in realistic environments.

Public Health Relevance

Falling and related injuries greatly limit mobility in older adults, and their risk can be reduced substantially with exercise, rehabilitation, and other interventions. It is currently difficult, however, to monitor mobility in the home and for long durations, either to assess compliance to an intervention or to determine dosage of medicine. This proposal seeks to develop new technology to enable accurate, long-term measurements of gait and mobility in the home.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Small Business Innovation Research Grants (SBIR) - Phase II (R44)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-MOSS-F (15))
Program Officer
Joseph, Lyndon
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Intelligent Prosthetic Systems, LLC
Ann Arbor
United States
Zip Code
Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G et al. (2017) Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters. Gait Posture 55:87-93
Rebula, John R; Ojeda, Lauro V; Adamczyk, Peter G et al. (2017) The stabilizing properties of foot yaw in human walking. J Biomech 53:1-8
Wu, Amy R; Kuo, Arthur D (2016) Determinants of preferred ground clearance during swing phase of human walking. J Exp Biol 219:3106-3113
Riddick, R C; Kuo, A D (2016) Soft tissues store and return mechanical energy in human running. J Biomech 49:436-41
Skinner, Nathaniel E; Zelik, Karl E; Kuo, Arthur D (2015) Subjective valuation of cushioning in a human drop landing task as quantified by trade-offs in mechanical work. J Biomech 48:1887-92
Huang, Tzu-wei P; Shorter, Kenneth A; Adamczyk, Peter G et al. (2015) Mechanical and energetic consequences of reduced ankle plantar-flexion in human walking. J Exp Biol 218:3541-50
Ojeda, Lauro V; Rebula, John R; Kuo, Arthur D et al. (2015) Influence of contextual task constraints on preferred stride parameters and their variabilities during human walking. Med Eng Phys 37:929-36
Fu, Xiao-Yu; Zelik, Karl E; Board, Wayne J et al. (2015) Soft Tissue Deformations Contribute to the Mechanics of Walking in Obese Adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 47:1435-43
Adamczyk, Peter Gabriel; Kuo, Arthur D (2015) Mechanisms of Gait Asymmetry Due to Push-Off Deficiency in Unilateral Amputees. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 23:776-85
Voloshina, Alexandra S; Kuo, Arthur D; Daley, Monica A et al. (2013) Biomechanics and energetics of walking on uneven terrain. J Exp Biol 216:3963-70

Showing the most recent 10 out of 12 publications