This application addresses the broad Challenge Area (15) Translational Science, and specific Challenge Topic 15-DK-101: Identification of bioactive macronutrients in the diet that impact metabolic state. The alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity is a cause of great concern given its association with many adverse health conditions, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The primary objective of this project is to identify effective dietary strategies, focused on carbohydrate quantity and starch digestibility, to improve outcome variables associated with CVD risk in insulin resistant individuals who express components of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP). Current dietary guidelines emphasize substitution of carbohydrate calories for total and saturated fat calories for prevention and management of chronic disease. Yet, we and others have shown that high-carbohydrate diets increase the expression of the ALP, characterized by increased plasma triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, and increased levels of small, dense LDL particles, and that this phenotype is reversed by moderate carbohydrate restriction. We have also shown that expression of steroyl coenzymeA desaturase (SCD), an enzyme involved in triglyceride synthesis, is reduced with carbohydrate restriction and that this change is correlated with plasma triglyceride response. While carbohydrate restriction is effective for management of ALP, the role of starch quality has not been addressed. Furthermore, there has been no study of the effects of resistant vs. digestible starches incorporated into high- vs. lower carbohydrate diets. Since isolated reports suggest that increased intake of resistant starch lowers plasma triglycerides and postprandial insulinemia, we hypothesize that starch quality is an important determinant of components of ALP, and that this may be mediated in part by reduced adipose tissue SCD expression.
Aim 1 of this proposal will address this hypothesis by a controlled dietary intervention in 52 insulin resistant men and women in which changes in plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lipogenic gene expression will be determined after substituting resistant starch for digestible starch in a high- vs. lower-carbohydrate diet.
In Aim 2, the fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin responses to a resistant vs. digestible starch meal will be measured to test the hypothesis that starch digestibility improves glycemic and insulinemic control in a way that relates to diet-induced changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Ultimately, understanding the mechanisms by which resistant vs. rapidly digested starches improve insulinemic and lipid control may facilitate the formulation of more specific dietary recommendations aimed at prevention and treatment of insulin resistance, and its associated atherogenic dyslipidemia and CVD risk.

Public Health Relevance

The overall objective of this project is to test the capacity of a specific dietary component, resistant starch, to improve metabolic biomarkers of CVD risk in individuals who are predisposed to type 2 diabetes by virtue of reduced insulin sensitivity. The information gained from this study could facilitate formulation of dietary recommendations for CVD prevention and management that focus on carbohydrate quality as well as quantity

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
NIH Challenge Grants and Partnerships Program (RC1)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-EMNR-C (58))
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Staten, Myrlene A
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Children's Hospital & Res Ctr at Oakland
United States
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Maier, Tanja V; Lucio, Marianna; Lee, Lang Ho et al. (2017) Impact of Dietary Resistant Starch on the Human Gut Microbiome, Metaproteome, and Metabolome. MBio 8:
Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T; Lamendella, Regina et al. (2016) Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk. Br J Nutr 116:2020-2029
Koeth, Robert A; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S et al. (2013) Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med 19:576-85