This application requests training support for four predoctoral students per year. That support will be used to expand our doctoral training in two specific areas. The first is in the cochlear implants. We will take advantage of the broad range of research at our institution on this topic and provide students exposure to both didactic and laboratory experiences in several related areas. Our goal is to train students who can use multiple research techniques to approach important issues in cochlear implant design, programming and use. The second is that of molecular biology tissue engineering and genetics. We see a need to expand the research tools and capabilities of students trained in speech and hearing science in order to take advantage of advances in molecular biology and genetics. Our goal is to train students in the more traditional behavioral and/or physiological techniques but also to provide them with the knowledge, tools and experience to use techniques of molecular biology. We will take advantage of ongoing research projects and collaborations to provide training relevant to speech and hearing science. Support is requested for two students entering per year. Each student will be funded for two years of their program of study. ? ? ? ?