This application seeks support to train scientific leaders in neural control of breathing and circulation. This program will support Ph.D. graduate students that will be selected based on undergraduate performance and their relevant research interest for their future careers. We have designed an integrated training program to prepare these future scientists to apply their skills to problems in pulmonary and cardiovascular functional disorders in relation to neuronal, behavioral and chemical control of breathing, and cardiovascular functions. Over the last 30 years the Ph.D. training program in Physiology and Biophysics, with particular emphasis on respiratory and cardiovascular control has graduated more than 30 trainees who are in research and teaching throughout the U.S. Under the leadership of Dr. M. A. Haxhiu as Program Director, Drs. C. Ovid Trouth and V. J. Massari as Program Co-Directors, and Dr. B. R. Coleman, Departmental Chairperson, we are committed to focus and intensify research on neural and hormonal control of breathing, airways, and circulation. This will be accomplished by, building on current research programs and maximizing our strengths in neuroscience, respiration and cardiovascular physiology, and expanding existing collaborations with established investigators in the Departments of Anatomy, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Biology and Medicine. Our program faculties at Howard University and at the Collaborative Intensive Research Institutions are comprised of well established scientists, experienced trainers, and NIH-supported investigators who are working in interrelated areas of neural and hormonal control of breathing, airways and the cardiovascular system, all of which encompass both basic biologic and clinical components. Students may choose to focus their research project in control of breathing, airway functions, or the cardiovascular system. The availability of experienced mentorship and outstanding Collaborative Research Faculty in these interrelated fields and the strong interaction between these fields are the major components of this proposal. A """"""""Neural and Hormonal Control of Breathing and Circulation"""""""" Seminar Series will serve as a nucleus for the trainees from both fields by providing a formal curriculum and an interactive """"""""research in progress"""""""" component. Graduate students will have the opportunity to select courses in the basic sciences and will be trained in manuscript and grant preparation, in teaching and communication. In collaboration with designated Faculty at Case Western Reserve University, Johns Hopkins University, Mayo Medical School, University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and Yale University, we will offer vigorous, focused mentorship that will motivate our trainees to develop solid academic careers.